NERC Balancing and Frequency Control July 5 2009

NERC Balancing and Frequency Control July 5 2009 -...

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BALANCING AND FREQUENCY CONTROL A Technical Document Prepared by the NERC Resources Subcommittee July 5, 2009
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BALANCING AND FREQUENCY CONTROL Table of Contents INTRODUCTION. .......................................................................................................................... 3 Background. ................................................................................................................................ 3 Note to Trainers . ......................................................................................................................... 3 Disclaimer. .................................................................................................................................. 3 BALANCING FUNDAMENTALS. ............................................................................................... 3 Balancing and Frequency Control Basics . .................................................................................. 3 Control Continuum . .................................................................................................................... 8 Primary Control . ..................................................................................................................... 8 Secondary Control . ................................................................................................................. 9 Tertiary Control . ..................................................................................................................... 9 Time Control. .......................................................................................................................... 9 Control Continuum Summary. .............................................................................................. 10 Area Control Error (ACE) Review . .......................................................................................... 10 Bias vs. Frequency Response. ................................................................................................... 11 DETAILED DISCUSSION. .......................................................................................................... 13 Primary Control (Frequency Response). ................................................................................... 13 Background. .......................................................................................................................... 13 Frequency Response Trends. ................................................................................................ 14 Frequency Response Variability. .......................................................................................... 15 Tips on Calculating Frequency Response. ............................................................................ 17 Frequency Response Profiles of the Interconnections. ......................................................... 21 Annual Bias Calculation. ...................................................................................................... 23 Estimating Load’s Frequency Response. .............................................................................. 24 Key Points (Primary Control). .............................................................................................. 25 Secondary Control. .................................................................................................................... 26 Background. .......................................................................................................................... 26 Control Performance Standard 1 (CPS1). ............................................................................. 26 Control Performance Standard 2 (CPS2). ............................................................................. 30 Tertiary Control. ........................................................................................................................ 31 Background. .......................................................................................................................... 31 Measuring Performance rather than the Commodity. ........................................................... 34 TIME CONTROL AND INADVERTENT INTERCHANGE . .................................................... 36 Background. .............................................................................................................................. 36 Time Control. ............................................................................................................................ 36 Inadvertent Interchange. ............................................................................................................ 36 Primary Inadvertent . ............................................................................................................. 37 Secondary Inadvertent . ......................................................................................................... 37 FREQUENCY CORRECTION AND INTERVENTION . ........................................................... 38 Background. .............................................................................................................................. 38 Short-Term Triggers (Reliability Coordinators). ........................................................................... 38 NERC TOOLS . ............................................................................................................................. 40 REFERENCES. ............................................................................................................................. 41 REVIEW QUESTIONS . ............................................................................................................... 43 Primary Control. ........................................................................................................................ 43 Secondary Control. .................................................................................................................... 47 Reliability Based Control (Draft) Standard. .............................................................................. 49 REVISION HISTORY. ................................................................................................................. 51
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BALANCING AND FREQUENCY CONTROL INTRODUCTION Background The NERC Resources Subcommittee drafted this reference at the request of the NERC Operating Committee as part of a series on Operating and Planning Reliability Concepts . The document covers balancing and frequency control concepts, issues, and recommendations. Send questions and suggestions for changes and additions to balancing@nerc.com . Note to Trainers Trainers are encouraged to develop and share materials based on this reference. The NERC Resources Subcommittee will post information supporting information at: http://www.nerc.com/~filez/rs_tutorials.html . Disclaimer This document is intended to explain the concepts and issues of balancing and frequency control. The goal is to provide a better understanding of the fundamentals. Nothing in this document is intended to be used for compliance purposes or establish obligations. . BALANCING FUNDAMENTALS Balancing and Frequency Control Basics The power system of North America is divided into four major Interconnections. These Interconnections can be thought of as independent islands. The Interconnections are: Western – Generally everything west of the Rockies. Texas - Also known as Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). Eastern – Generally everything east of the Rockies except Texas and Quebec. Quebec. Each Interconnection is actually a large machine, as every generator within the island is pulling in tandem with the others to supply electricity to all customers. The “speed” of the Interconnection is frequency, measured in cycles per second or Hertz (Hz). If the
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This note was uploaded on 07/14/2011 for the course ECE 522 taught by Professor Tomsovic during the Summer '10 term at University of Florida.

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NERC Balancing and Frequency Control July 5 2009 -...

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