Carlos Chavez AP Bio Assignment Human.pdf - Carlos Chavez AP Bio Name Class Date Human Evolution \u2013 Comparing Primates Background According to the

Carlos Chavez AP Bio Assignment Human.pdf - Carlos Chavez...

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Unformatted text preview: Carlos Chavez AP Bio Name: ___________________________ Class: ______________________ Date: ____________________ Human Evolution – Comparing Primates Background According to the theory of evolution, all species are are related and linked to a common ancestor. Species that are more closely related have common ancestor that existed much more recently, while species that are distantly related may have to go back hundreds of millions of years to find a common ancestor. The closest living relatives to the Homo sapiens, the human species, are primates. This lab will compare many of the physical and biochemical characteristics between this group of animals. Comparative Anatomy Examine the drawings of the hands of five different primates shown below. Fill out the table of observations. Source: Biology: The Dynamics of Life Textbook Primate z Opposable Thumb? Length of Thumb (cm) Claws or Nails? Tarsier no 9 cm claws Baboon yes 2 cm claws Orangutan no 1.3 cm nails Gorilla yes 4 cm nails Human yes 2.5 cm nails Biology Teaching Resources Page 1 Name: ___________________________ Class: ______________________ Date: ____________________ Compare the skeletons of the human and gorilla shown below. Source: Biology: The Web of Life Textbook Characteristic Human Pelvis Shape The female inlet is larger and oval in shape, while the male sacral promontory projects further Jaw Size 17.22–19.33 cm in males and 16.44–18.67 cm in females Spine Shape Bone Arrangement of Feet Overall Height Arms Longer Than Legs S-vertical shape Very closely structured and vertically placed. Male 5.6 ft. Female 5.2 ft no Gorilla Most transversely oval, short and broad, termed platypelloid. 33.4- 35.2 cm in males and 22.5- 27.8 cm in females L-curved shape Very far apart from eachother. 5.2 - 5.6 ft. yes Explain of Differences Gorilla’s pelvic shape is smaller in size but very similar in position. Human jaw size is smaller because gorillas tend to have bigger teeth Gorillas shape is very hunchback shape, Humans tend to stand instead of curve like grillas. Gorillas have more spread apart feet since they do climb and crawl, unlike humans; theyre only used to walk. Not very much of a difference; Gorillas do tend to be wider than Humans Gorillas have arms longer than legs; again more adaptable to their environemnt. 2. What similarities do you see between the human and gorilla skeleton? Both have the same bones, but structured very differently; legs, arms, pelvic system, upper body system, etc.. Name: ___________________________ Class: ______________________ Date: ____________________ Scale drawings of skulls of the gorilla, modern humans, and a human ancestor called Australopithecus africanus are shown below. Examine each skull, paying special attention to the size of the brain cavity, the jaw size, and the jaw angle. Record all measurements on the table. Source: Biology: The Dynamics of Life Textbook Name: ___________________________ Class: ______________________ Date: ____________________ Gorilla Australopithecus Modern Human Facial Area (cm 2 ) (Length x width) 42 25.5 16.81 Cranial Area (cm 2 ) (Length x width) 30 30 49.41 Ratio of Cranial Area to Facial Area 4:1 3:1 3:2 Cranial Capacity (cm2 ) (πr2 ) 700 760 1220 34 54 90 Angle of Jaw (Degrees) Length of Incisors (cm) 15 cm 12cm 21.5 cm Presence of Brow Ridge 3 5 7 Presence of Sagittal Crest 2 1 4 3. Summarize the physical differences between the jaws of the gorilla, Australopithecus, and modern human. What does the jaw size suggest about how the diets of each species differ? The gorillas jaw is much wider because it consists of a heavier diet than humans; they tend to eat more harder and raw things so they’d obviously need a bigger jaw. 4. Summarize the physical differences between the craniums of the gorilla, Australopithecus, and modern human. What does this difference tell you about each species? Humans and gorillas share almost the same brain size, since humans are much more evolved and smarter than gorillas they have a bit of a bigger brain meaning they’d need bigger head space. 5. Given the comparisons you made between each skull, which species is most closely related to humans, the gorilla, or Australopithecus? Justify your answer with specific data. They’re very similar, although the Australopithecus’ is much smaller since the gorilla and human are much more alike. Name: ___________________________ Class: ______________________ Date: ____________________ Molecular Biology Animals with red blood each have a large protein molecule called hemoglobin in their blood cells. Hemoglobin is needed to transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Hemoglobin, like all proteins, is made of amino acids. Below is a summary of some of the amino acids of hemoglobin. Partial sequences are given for humans, chimpanzees, gibbons, gorillas, a monkey, and a mouse. Sequences that are identical for all animals are skipped. For each non-human animal, take a highlighter and mark any amino acids that are different than the human sequence. When you finish, record how many differences you found in the table on the next page. 4 5 6 9 10 12 13 20 25 33 41 43 50 51 52 Human T P E S A T A V G V F E T P D Chimpanzee T P E S A T A V G V F E T P D Gibbon T P E S A T A V G V F E T P D Gorilla T P E S A T A V G V F E T P D New World Monkey T P E N A T T V G L F E S P D Mouse T D A A A S C S G V Y D S A S 54 56 58 68 69 70 71 72 73 75 76 77 80 87 104 Human V G P L G A F S D L A H N T R Chimpanzee V G P L G A F S D L A H N T R Gibbon V G P L G A F S D L A H N Q R Gorilla V G P L G A F S D L A H N T K New World Monkey V G P L G A F S D L N H N Q K Mouse I G A I T A F N D L N H S S R 109 110 112 115 116 117 118 121 125 126 130 139 Human V L C A H H F E P V Y N Chimpanzee V L C A H H F E P V Y N Gibbon V L C A H H F E Q V Y N Gorilla V L C A H H F E P V Y N New World Monkey V L C A H H F E Q V Y N Mouse M I I G H H L D A A F T Name: ___________________________ Class: ______________________ Date: ____________________ Animal Number of Amino Acid Differences Compared to Human Hemoglobin Chimpanzee 0 Gibbon 2 New World Monkey 8 Mouse 29 Molecular Biology – Summary Questions 6. Based on the hemoglobin data, which organism is most closely related to humans? Which is most distantly related to humans? Chimpanzee - no difference in hemoglobin structure. Conclusion This is a cladogram for the major groups of primates. Based on the relationships shown in this cladogram, answer each of the following questions: 7. Which primate species is most closely related to humans? Chimpanzee 8. Which primate species is most distantly related to humans? Lorises, pottos, and lemurs 9. How long ago did speciation occur between tarsiers and the ancestor of all the anthropoids? 65 million years ago 10. According to this cladogram, about how long ago did the common ancestor between humans and chimpanzees exist? 10 11. Explain why the statement “Humans evolved from monkeys” is incorrect. Scientists were able to find through certain structures and through common DNA strands that humans and monkeys have a common ancestor. It's a common misconception that monkeys and humans evolve from monkeys. Also, if humans were in fact evolved from monkeys, monkeys wouldn't even exist because in order for a species to evolve from another species, the species that was evolved from would have to be extinct. ...
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