150Lec2 - Lecture #2: General Chemistry and Minerals...

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Lecture #2: General Chemistry and Minerals Abbott, p. 190 Chemistry explains why some volcanoes are more violent and dangerous than others. The Building Blocks of Matter: Protons Neutrons → Atoms→ Molecules → Minerals → Rocks Electrons Example with Water: General Chemistry Rocks, minerals, life forms, and all matter (physical materials) in the entire Universe consist of atoms. Under conditions at the Earth's surface, each atom has a core ( nucleus ), which contains one or more protons . Protons have positive charges. Except for some hydrogen atoms, one or more neutrons (subatomic particles without charges) are also present in nuclei. (The word nuclei is the plural of the word nucleus.) Electrons (with negative charges) surround the nuclei. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is its atomic number (Z). Each element has its own Z. For example, carbon has 6 protons or Z = 6, and is abbreviated: 6 C. Hydrogen only has one proton ( 1 H), iron has 26 ( 26 Fe), etc. Generalized Structure of the Atom:
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Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. For example, the isotope carbon-12 ( 12 6 C) has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, whereas isotope carbon-13 ( 13 6 C) has 6 protons and 7 neutrons. The 12 for carbon-12 and the 13 for carbon-13 are called mass numbers (A). Mass numbers represent the total number of
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150Lec2 - Lecture #2: General Chemistry and Minerals...

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