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horsecolgens - Horse Color Genetics ANS 3384 University of...

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Unformatted text preview: Horse Color Genetics ANS 3384 University of Florida Department of Animal Sciences Useful Horse Color Website • http://www.horsecolor.com/ BAY – A - E - must have both the A and E dominant genes There is a lot of variation within the bay phenotype This might be called a mahogany bay BLACK Genotype a/a E/ - Seal Brown Genotype: at / at E/- Alleles at the A Locus in the Horse • A -- produces the bay phenotype as long as there is an E at the E locus (A/A, A/at , or A/a) • at -- responsible (at/at or at/a) for the rare seal brown coloration • a -- when homozygous a/a produces black CHESTNUT A darker shade of “red” SORREL A lighter shade of red Genotype: - / - e/e Note: a sorrel horse can have any A Locus genotype Note that sorrel/chestnut horses have black skin PALOMINO Palomino Rabbits ???? A very golden palomino! Genetics of Palomino Color • The Palomino is a “diluted” sorrel/chestnut • Palominos are all heterozygous for the dilution gene sometimes called “cream” • Palomino genotype: • e/e Cr/Cr+ Sorrel horses homozygous for the cream gene are called Cremellos Genotype: e/e Cr/Cr The horse in the middle is a cremello BUCKSKIN Genetics of the Buckskin color • The buckskin color is produced when a bay horse is heterozygous for the Cream dilution • Genotype of a Buckskin horse • A / - E/ - Cr/Cr+ • Note that the black portion of the bay coloration is NOT changed! Perlino horses are bays that are homozygous for the Cream gene: A/ - E/ - Cr/Cr Smoky Black, black plus one cream gene Smoky Blacks look like most any black horse without the cream gene Genotype: a/a E/e Cr/Cr+ Confirmed Smoky Black Stallion. He is by a black stallion and out of a palomino mare. His first foal was a palomino out of a sorrel mare, confirming that he carries the cream gene. Genotype of AnnieUp: A/a E/E Cr/Cr Dun Bay + D/ - = Dun Red Dun Sorrel + D/ - = Red Dun Grulla Dunalino = D and Cr Note that this horse appears to be a palomino but with a dorsal stripe Above horse is reported to be produced by the combined effects of the D and Cr genes on Black! Horse Color Review Sheet A/- E/a/a E/at/at or at/a E/-/- e/e A/- E/- Cr/Cr+ a/a E/- Cr/Cr+ -/- e/e Cr/Cr+ A/- E/- D/a/a E/- D/-/- e/e D/- Bay Black Seal Brown Sorrel Buckskin Black/”Smoky” Palomino Dun/”Bay Dun” Grullo Red Dun Other Dilutions • Champagne – Lightens skin as well as hair color • Silver Dapple – Lightens mane and tail, can change black to “chocolate” as in Rocky Mountain horses • Pearl – Recessive, found in horses with Spanish heritage Champagne Colorations • The Champagne gene (Ch) is dominant • Bay + Champagne = Amber Champagne • Sorrel + Champagne = Gold Champagne • Black + Champagne = Classic Champagne • Sorrel + Ch + Ccr/C+ = Cream Champagne The Champagne dilution often Produces a metallic sheen – Amber Champagne = Bay + Champagne Classic Champagne = Black + Champagne Gold Champagne: Sorrel + Champagne Skin color is also lightened Silver Dapple acting on black In Rocky Mountain Horse Silver Bay: Silver acting on Bay Silver does not affect red pigment so only the points are affected. The Pearl Dilution • Pearl behaves as a recessive gene with respect to the hair color. One dose of the mutation does not change the coat color of black, bay or chestnut horses. • Two doses on a chestnut background produce a pale, uniform apricot color of body hair, mane and tail. Skin coloration is also pale. • Pearl is known to interact with Cream dilution to produce pseudo-double Cream dilute phenotypes including pale skin and blue/green eyes – pearl is likely allelic to cream. Pearl acting on black “Apricot-colored” mare from two chestnut parents The pearl cream Lusitano mare Clara is from Tesouro II out of Confusao. She tested AA Ee (bay) and has both cream and pearl alleles. Brindle Horse: Modification of “Sooty”? The most dramatic brindles appear to be chimeras GRAY A completely dominant gene, G, is responsible for the gray coloration of horses. MORE GRAYS Gray horses are born with pigment, black, bay or sorrel, And gradually lose the pigment as they age Lipizaners Dapple Gray Blue Roan Roan horses are heterozygous for a gene, R, which, when homozygous, is lethal in utero. Red Roan Dominant White APPALOOSA APPALOOSA APPALOOSA APPALOOSA APPALOOSA APPALOOSA APPALOOSA APPALOOSA 15/16 Percheron; 1/16 Appaloosa Spotted Ass OVERO PAINTS Overo O / o+ o+ / o+ Tobiano Paints Homozygous Tobiano Homozygous Tobiano Tobiano Tovero Paint? Sabino More Sabinos Splash, a new spotting gene • Incomplete Dominant, homozygotes will show more white Sire registered as an overo but probably Actually a sabino ...
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