Chpt4_ANS3319BrainAnatLab_10

Chpt4_ANS3319BrainAnatLab_10 - ANS 3319C Reproductive...

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ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology and Endocrinology Lab Hypothalamic and Pituitary Anatomy & Endocrinology Objectives 1) To provide an introduction to the gross anatomy of the brain with emphasis on dissection of the hypothalamus and pituitary. 2) To introduce the anatomical, neural, and vascular relationships between the hypothalamus and the pituitary (anterior and posterior), which allow them to communicate with each other. 3) To provide an introduction to hormones synthesized/secreted by the hypothalamus and the anterior and posterior pituitary with emphasis on reproductive hormones. Gross Anatomy of the Brain (Figure 5) Cerebrum: center of higher mental functions, voluntary muscle control. Cerebellum: controls the property of movements, speed, acceleration, and trajectory. Brainstem: midbrain: auditory and visual reflex centers. pons, medulla: postural reflexes and other reflex centers. Olfactory bulb: involved in distinguishing smell. Optic chiasma: where the optic nerves cross to contralateral sides. Pituitary: composed of neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis; master gland controlling body’s internal environment. Corpus collosum: the commissure between the hemispheres of the brain. Pineal body: synthesis and secretion of melatonin. Hypothalamus: controls body’s internal environment. Stalk median eminence: area between the hypothlalmus and the pituitary. Mammillary body Third ventricle of the brain Anatomy of the Hypothalamus, Pituitary & Pineal Gland Hypothalamus (Figures 1 & 5) Neuroendocrine gland comprised of numerous paired nuclei that integrate physiological signals of the body. Occupies a small portion of the third ventricle, extending from the optic chiasma to the mammillary bodies. Synthesizes and secretes hormones that act on the pituitary (See Hormone Table) : Releasing & Inhibiting hormones: small peptides secreted from hypothalamus that control the secretion of protein hormones from the pituitary gland Hormones directly associated with reproduction: GnRH, CRH, PIF, PRF Two important nuclei related to reproduction, which secrete GnRH: Arcuate nucleus - controls basal secretion of LH and FSH. Preoptic nucleus - controls preovulatory surge of LH and FSH.
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