Chpt10_ANS3319Ultrasound_PG_Lab10 - ANS 3319C Reproductive...

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ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology and Endocrinology Lab Pregnancy Detection Using Ultrasonography Objectives 1) Provide a brief introduction to the principals of ultrasonography. 2) To demonstrate transrectal ultrasonography to evaluate ovarian structures in the bovine. 3) To demonstrate how transrectal ultrasonography is used to detect, age, and sex the early developing bovine pregnancy. What is ultrasonography? 1) Ultrasonography utilizes pulses of sound waves that are projected towards its intended structures and within seconds the echoes are returned to the source from which they originate. 2) Various body tissues conduct sound differently. Some tissues absorb sound waves while others reflect them. The density of the tissue dictates the speed at which the echoes return. 3) The transducer is responsible for sending and receiving the sound signals while the computer converts the sound signal into an electrical signal, which is ultimately viewed on a computer screen (Figure 1) . Transducers come in two types: linear which produces a rectangular image and sector which produces an image similar to that of a “slice of pie”. Transducers come in several frequencies: a 7.5MHz transducer is used to produce great detail but will only image superficial structures, a 3.5MHz transducer can penetrate deeper structures but lacks detail, and a 5 MHz transducer is usually a good compromise in detail and penetration. 4) The picture that the ultrasound generates on the monitor is in different shades of white and grey, which is dictated by the echogenicity of tissues. Echogenicity of a tissue is described by how quickly sound waves are reflected back to the transducer from which they originate. Hence, the echogenicity of a tissue is related to the brightness of the image on the ultrasound monitor. Tissues and or fluids present two types of echogenic patterns: Anechoic: No echoes of sound; hence, black is visualized on the monitor (i.e., fluid). Hyperechogenic: Increased echoes of sound; hence, white is visualized on the monitor (i.e., bone). Appearance of ultrasound images
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This note was uploaded on 07/16/2011 for the course ANS 3319 C taught by Professor Yelich during the Spring '11 term at University of Florida.

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Chpt10_ANS3319Ultrasound_PG_Lab10 - ANS 3319C Reproductive...

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