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Chpt13_ANS3319_ET_Lab_10 - ANS 3319C Reproductive...

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ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology and Endocrinology - Embryo Transfer Objectives 1) To introduce the process of superovulation and embryo transfer (ET) in cattle and horses. 2) To provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of ET in cattle and horses. 3) To review the steps of ET including flushing, searching, handling, grading, freezing, thawing, and transferring embryos. Advantages and disadvantages of an ET program in cattle and horses The reasons that cattle and equine industries utilize ET are very similar from both a production and economic standpoint. The actual procedures of collecting and processing embryos are also quite similar between the species as are the advantages and disadvantages. Advantages Increase the number of offspring sired from superior females. Results in faster genetic progress. Increase the frequency of desired matings, capitalizing on excellence of a mating. Obtain offspring from old or injured animals incapable of breeding or calving naturally. Increased farm income through embryo sales. Exportation and/or importation of embryos is easier than with live animals. Disadvantages Can be cost prohibitive and success rates are less than AI. Cost and maintenance of recipient females. Requires a technician with the skills to flush embryos from the reproductive tract. Possible spread of disease through recipients. Animal components of ET Program (With an emphasis on bovine) Donor : animal that donates embryos 1) Selection criteria are used to select a donor. Genetic merit, reproductive performance, progeny performance 2) Embryo from a donor cow does not guarantee a superior calf. Each embryo has a different genotype and more than likely a different phenotypic expression due to its environment. 3) Reproductive soundness Animals must be exhibiting regular estrous cycles. At least 60 to 90 days post calving. Eliminate cows with a history of reproductive problems. Recipient : animal that receives embryo from donor. 1) Recipients (also known as surrogate) are the greatest single cost of an ET program because they need to be at the same stage of the estrous cycle as the donor when she donated the embryos. Estrous synchronization is typically used to manipulate recipients so they are at the correct stage of the estrous cycle. 2) Females should be healthy, good body condition, and vaccinated for all the common reproductive diseases.
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ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology and Endocrinology - Embryo Transfer 2 3) Females should have been through at least two normal estrous cycles before use. 4) Pregnancy rates are greatest when day of the estrous cycles of the donor and recipient are within 24 hours of each other. The recipient should exhibit estrus from 24 hours before to 12 hours after the donor was in estrus. Embryos are typically transferred on day 7 of the estrous cycle. Management components of ET Program
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Chpt13_ANS3319_ET_Lab_10 - ANS 3319C Reproductive...

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