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lifespan notes 2 - Module 5 Chapter 4 Prenatal concerns...

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Module 5- Chapter 4 Prenatal concerns overview Not in the test: prenatal diagnostic processuders Critical period Embryonic, epigenetic period, 1 st trimester = period of susceptibility ( most critical) 3-8 th week :embryo 8 th to birth: fetus Gestations (full term): 38-40 wks Born below 37 weeks is premature; preterm - baby held at NICU Processes during critical periods Growth: Hyperplasia: hypertrophy (LOOK UP DIFFERENCE) Hyperplasia      means an increase  in the  number of cells     hypertrophy  refers to an increase  in  cell size . Epigenesis: differentiation of organs Specific Epigenetic period per body part Thalidomide babies Damage severity depends on drug timing Organs developing at time of ingestion will exhibit worst effects Developmental progression (direction) Cephalocaudal; proximodistal Teratogens Environmental agents, potentially harmful to the developing fetus Increase probability for structural and functional defects at embryonic stage Later stages, increase functional defects
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Common teratogens Recreational drugs Common results Low birth weight Proper term: small for gestational age Alcohol 3.3% of preg women are heavy drinkers Growth deficiency withdral syndromes (tremulousness, ADHD, &irritability) Fetal alcohol syndrome (cranio-facial abnormalities, MR) FAE (less severe, fine motor dysfunction, motor performance delays) Cocaine Increased chance of miscarriage fetal brain damage…lack of O2 BP fluctuations…Brain hemorrhaging decreased blood flow in placenta…decreased birthweight..placenta sepr’n= bleeding…potential death jittery and irritable with minimal provoc’n Increased SIDS risk Tobacco Decreased birth weight Increased mortality at birth; meternal complications Increased probability of miscarriage; SIDS Increased probability of fetal hypoxia (CO) Nicotine poisoning if breast-fed Increased respiratory diseases (bronchitis and pneumonia) Cannabis (marijuana)
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Associated with low birthweight and small-for-gestational age infants. Drugs and prescribed medications Prescriptive drugs: may be good for mom but damages organs in fetus For epilepsy, depression, thyroid anomalies. Diabetes Timing is critical (epigenetic period/body part) Nonprescriptive drugs Aspirin…close to delivery Prolonged labor, increased bleeding (mom and fetus) Alcohol in cough medicines Fire retardants, Carbon Monoxide Other cleaning chemicals Radiation: Nagasaki, Hiroshima, Chernobyl Maternal diseases Whole host of them to monks to German measles
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