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1. How did Peter Voulko's ceramic work (p.342-343) challenge the idea of ceramics as "craft"? The Henry Seyre refers to ceramics as “objects that are formed out of clay and then hardened by firing, or baking in a very hot oven, called a kiln.” Therefore, Peter Voulko's work that involved making stacks of clay to undergo a drying process in a wood-firing, fits the definitional term of ceramics. The wood-firing process is a process in which you summit your work to undergo a heating process of 2500 degree Fahrenheit. This meant that Voulko would have to accept that anything could happen in this process, a process soon known as “controlled accident” by the Japanese because no one art piece would ever turn out the same. The ideal that he could not control the outcome could question the idea of craft making ability on Voulko’s part. The fact though that he took much detailed time making the stacks of clay just right to resemble not only the ancient pyramids, but it also “represents a mystery of the unknown(Sayre 343).” He used the idea of not being able to control exactly how they dried as a way to show the unknown, to show the elements of emotions and feelings behind the unknown. Craft are defined by Sayre as work done by hand, in Voulko very well challenged this idea because he created his stacks of clay very detailed and carefully but he also had to allow it to undergo heat of 2500 degrees, making it also crazy to try and say he did all of this by hand. The idea that these ceramics were undergo such high heat, challenged if one could truly say this is a fully hands on creation. To me Voulko’s “stacks” demonstrated that it is in fact a craft, I believe so because he not only takes the time to assemble the stacks before heat but he also uses tools right before they are finished drying to make indentions, shapes, or whatever form he wished on the clay’s surface. This allowed you to see that he truly uses his hands to be able to shape and make his truly amazing work of art.
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2.  (Points: 25)      A new set of art design principles has evolved based upon the eclectic sum of our modern, complex, visual  world of neon signs and fast sound bites. This sense of disjunction, that the parts can never form a unified 
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