Hydrocarbons Study Guide

Hydrocarbons Study Guide - Hydrocarbons Exam #1 Define:...

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Unformatted text preview: Hydrocarbons Exam #1 Define: Petroleum a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid o Exists in the upper strata of some areas of the earths curst. Consists of a compex mixture of various hydrocarbons, largely of gthe alkane series. Biogenic Theory crude oil and natural gas are products of compression and heating of ancient vegetation over geological time scales. o Oil and natural gas formed from the decayed remains of prehistoric marine animals and terrestrial plants. Over many centuries, organic matter, mixed with mud, is buried with thick sedimentary layers Catagenesis- Heat and pressure metamorphose the organic remains into a waxy material called kerogen, and then into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons Reservoirs porous rocks that contain hydrocarbons o Hydrocarbons migrate through adjacent rock layers until they becom trapped in a reservoir This creates an oil field and the liquid can be extracted by drilling and pumping Oil Window depth at which oil can be found (150 m is generally considered the oil window but the depths around the world are typically 4-5 km. Three Conditions for a reservoir a rich source rock, a migration conduit, and a trap (seal) Breakdown Reactions reactions that produce oil and natural gas, kerogen breaks down to oil and natural gas by a large set of parallel reactions, and oil eventually breaks down to natural gas by another set of reactions Abiogenic Theory large amounts of carbon exists naturally in the planet, some in the form of hydrocabons. Hydrocarbons are less dense than aqueous pore fluids, and migrate upward through deep fracture networks Seven Sisters seven oil companies that were created by the division of Rockefellers monopoly on oil. (B.P., Shell, Exxon, Mobil, Texaco, Socal (Chevron ), and Gulf) OPEC (The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) a permanent, intergovernmental organization crated at the Baghdad Conference of September 10-14, 1960. Consisted of I ran I raq Kuwait, Saudi Arabia , and Venezuela. o The founding five were joined by eight other memebers; Qatar, Indonesia, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, UAE, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, Gabon, and Angola Primary Oil Recovery extraction of oil from a reservoir using the reservoirs pressure to force oil to the surface. o Only 20% of oil in a reservoir can be extracted by primary oil recovery Secondary Oil Recovery using various techniques, such as water injection, natural gas re-injection, to raise the reservoir pressure for oil extraction o Primary and Secondary oil recovery allow 25 35% of the reservoirs oil to be recovered Tertiary Oil Recovery reducing the oils viscosity to increase oil production o used when prices are high; previously unprofitable wells are brought back into production Thermally enhanced oil recovery a tertiary oil recovery technique in which the oil is heated making it less viscous and easier to extract Steam I njection -...
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Hydrocarbons Study Guide - Hydrocarbons Exam #1 Define:...

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