carbon sequestration

carbon sequestration - Earth Materials 24 November 2009 CO2...

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Earth Materials 24 November 2009 CO 2 Mineral Sequestration Magnesium and Calcium rich minerals react with carbon dioxide via sequestration forming carbonate minerals. Carbonates are a lower energy state than carbon dioxide making mineral carbonation a thermodynamically favorable reaction (1). Magnesium ores are abundant which makes carbonation economical. Once the carbon dioxide is sequestered into the mineral there is no issue of rerelease of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Other methods of sequestration are using saline formations to store carbon dioxide, storing carbon dioxide in un- mineable coal beds, and using it to push out oil and gas from reservoirs and keeping it stored in the ground. The objective is to find an industrially and environmentally viable carbonation route. Fossil fuels such as oil and gas are abundant, at a low cost, easy to use and store, and has a higher energy density comparable to other types of possible fuels (1). Fossil fuels account for eighty to eighty five percent of the worlds total energy use (1). This equates to a large amount of carbon dioxide emissions which negatively affects the planet. The effect of carbon dioxide being linked to climate change is still under debate, but carbon dioxide does have adverse affect on air quality. This can be seen in many large metropolitan areas. Since the 1800s, the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere has risen 85 parts per million (1). This number will only rise as the world economy grows and more countries become industrialized. As the many countries become industrialized their standards of living will rise, bringing a rise in the global carbon dioxide emissions (1). Countries that are industrialized, such as the United States, contribute to most of
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the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (1). In the report CO 2 Mineral Sequestration Studies in the U.S. , it states: “Over the thirty year period ending in 2020, projections made by the U.S. Energy Information Agency indicated global increase in energy use will increase worldwide emissions of CO 2 to 38x10 9 tons per year or an increase of 80 percent compared to 1990 levels.” With startling information such as this, carbon dioxide sequestration is a key factor in dealing with global climate change. More must be done besides lower emissions and raising efficiency to
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