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west_civ_test2 - Test 2 Notes Feb rua ry 15 2010 18th...

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Test 2 Notes February 15, 2010 18 th century society (an overview of enlightenment) Economics of Empire Bourgeois Society Aristocratic Society Mass Society Capitalism Unrestricted Trade Freedom of the Market ‘Invisible Hand’ Empires of Profit Laissez-Faire Economics Why Abolition? Universal Enlightenment Profit Margins Religious Fervor Imperial Competition Johnathan Swift – Gulliver’s Travel’s (1726) Henry Fielding – Tom Jones (1749) Conclusions Economic Disparity Racial/Imperial Inequality Aristocratic ‘escapism’ Enlightenment Paradox Peasant, Worker unrest
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February 17, 2010 War and Debt (1776) o France is in severe debt through wars o 7 Years War (French Indian) French loses o American Independence war (1776) France & America vs. Britain Famine o France struggles Resistance o Nobility Economy o Was a wreck Estates – General o Nobility o Clergy o Masses Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen o Guarantees: Rights of Property Freedom of Speech Religious Toleration Equality before the Law o Abolishes serfdom o Fusion of practical reform with enlightenment values
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The Rise of Jacobins o Weapons and Symbolic o Cooperation -> house arrest o 1790-1791 -> Counterrevolutionary War o Look for Traitors o Very Radical Louis XVI o Captured o Betrayed -> Prison September Massacres (1792) o Killing off traitors, noblemen o Louis XVI dies (traitor) Conclusion o Shockwave of Revolution destroyed Europe’s balance of power o Revolutionary Ideologies shake Europe’s foundations o Key legacies: Reign of Terror, Nationalism and Napoleonic Code February 19, 2010 State v. Nation – State o The State: political o The Nation: Ethnic o The Nation – State Body Politic o The King is Dead, Long live the King? o Subjects v. Citizens? o A New Republican Body o Monarch -> Republic o Citizens -> Nation
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The Jacobin Concept o The Phrygian Cap o An Appeal to Freedom o Active v. Passive Active o Soldier o Politician o Man Passive o Woman o Children o Elderly New symbols o Liberty, Equality, Fraternity National Anthems o The Marseillaise (1792) “Come, children of the fatherhood, against us tyranny’s bloody banner is raised” Revolutionary Media o Censorship o The Enlightenment o The Revolution o Pere Duchesne and L’Ami du Peuple Boys o Free Girls o Learn house keeping techniques
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Conclusions o The French Revolution changed concepts of political organization, culture and gender o Sociocultural consequences of Revolution as important (if not more so) than Napoleons’ imperial conquests February 22, 2010 The Concert of Europe The Congress of Vienna o Great Britain Castlereagh o France Talleyrand o Austria Metternich o Russia Alexander I Great Britain o Goals Retain imperial gains from 1789 – 1815 Keep France, Russia pacified o Reason: ‘Splendid Isolation’ Russia o Goals Restored Poland under Russian ‘control’ Alliance of Conservative Monarchs o Reasons:
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