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thermal physics summary

# thermal physics summary - OURWO IB PHYSICS ADDITIONAL...

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OUR WO IB PHYSICS ADDITIONAL HIGHER LEVEL THERMAL PHYSICS SUMMARY 9.1 Thermodynamic Systems and Concepts A thermodynamic system is an object or objects being investigated. e.g. the gas in a bicycle pump. The surroundings are everything else around the object. e.g. the material making up a pump and the air outside the pump. The system is closed if the mass stays the same and it is open if mass is added or leaves. In both an open and a closed system energy can and is exchanged with the surroundings. Work is done on an object when a force causes it to move faster or slower, change its shape or alters its position. Changes occur in the object’s kinetic, elastic potential or gravitational potential energies. In the study of thermodynamics, heat is the energy transferred between a system and its surroundings when a temperature difference exits between them. Internal energy is the sum of the kinetic energies of the particles of a gas. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles. A change in temperature means a change has occurred to the internal energy. When the surroundings do work on a gas, the work raises the internal energy of the gas and its temperature increases. Heat is transferred to the surroundings and the material that makes up the pump warms up. When the gas does work on the surroundings, energy is transferred from the gas to the surroundings. The internal energy of the gas decreases and so does its temperature. Pressure equals Force divided by area. When a small change in volume occurs the work done by the gas is equal to its pressure times the change in volume.

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