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thermal summary

# thermal summary - IB PHYSICS SUBSIDIARY LEVEL THERMAL...

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IB PHYSICS SUBSIDIARY LEVEL THERMAL PHYSICS SUMMARY 3.1 Thermal Concepts (2h) Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the vibrations called thermal motion When moving particles collide, energy is transferred from the one with more KE to the one with less KE. Thermal energy is transferred from the object at the higher temperature to the object at the lower temperature until the two are in thermal equilibrium when at the same temperature. A temperature scale is constructed by choosing two reproducible events such as the melting of ice and the boiling of water. The temperature values of these two events are then chosen. The Celcius scale is based on the temperature of melting ice being assigned the value zero. This is an arbitrary zero. The Kelvin temperature scale starts at absolute zero and each degree is the same as the Celcius scale. Kelvin = Celsius + 273 The thermal motion of particles is the total of the kinetic energies of movement and rotation. Forces between particles means they store potential energy. The total of the potential and kinetic energies of the particles is called the internal energy of the substance. Temperature is a number that determines if internal energy will be transferred to or from the object and its surroundings. Heat is infra-red electromagnetic waves that travel at the speed of light. When heat is absorbed, the internal energy of a substance increases. When heat is radiated from a substance, its internal energy decreases. Conduction occurs when a temperature difference exists between two substances or within the one substance. Collisions cause the particles with the greater kinetic energy to slow down and the ones with smaller kinetic energy to speed up. Solids are the best conductors because the particles are stacked close together and collisions occur readily between them.

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