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Ch13PPT w probs - Chapter 13 Regression Correlation The...

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Chapter 13 – 1 Chapter 13: Regression & Correlation The Scatter Diagram Two Examples: Education & Prestige Correlation Coefficient Bivariate Linear Regression Line SPSS Output Interpretation Covariance
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Chapter 13 – 2 Scatter Diagrams Scatter Diagram (scatterplot) a visual method used to display a relationship between two interval- ratio variables. Typically, the independent variable is placed on the X-axis (horizontal axis), while the dependent variable is placed on the Y-axis (vertical axis.)
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Chapter 13 – 3 Scatter Diagram Example The data…
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Chapter 13 – 4 Scatter Diagram Example
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Chapter 13 – 5 A Scatter Diagram Example of a Negative Relationship
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Chapter 13 – 6 Linear Relationships Linear relationship – A relationship between two interval-ratio variables in which the observations displayed in a scatter diagram can be approximated with a straight line. Deterministic ( perfect ) linear relationship – A relationship between two interval-ratio variables in which all the observations (the dots) fall along a straight line. The line provides a predicted value of Y (the vertical axis) for any value of X (the horizontal axis.
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Chapter 13 – 7 Graph the data below and examine the relationship:
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Chapter 13 – 8 The Seniority-Salary Relationship
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Chapter 13 – 9 Example: Education & Prestige Does education predict occupational prestige? If so, then the higher the respondent’s level of education, as measured by number of years of schooling, the greater the prestige of the respondent’s occupation. Take a careful look at the scatter diagram on the next slide and see if you think that there exists a relationship between these two variables…
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Chapter 13 – 10 Scatterplot of Prestige by Education
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Chapter 13 – 11 Example: Education & Prestige The scatter diagram data can be represented by a straight line, therefore there does exist a relationship between these two variables. In addition, since occupational prestige becomes higher, as years of education increases, we can say also that the relationship is a positive one.
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Chapter 13 – 12 Take your best guess? The mean age for U.S. residents. Now if I tell you that this person owns a skateboard, would you change your guess? (Of course!) With quantitative analyses we are generally trying to predict or take our best guess at value of the dependent variable. One way to assess the relationship between two variables is to consider the degree to which the extra information of the second variable makes your guess better. If someone owns a
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