RHETORICAL STRATEGIES STRATEGY EXAMPLE PURPOSE / COMMENTARY Details Abstract / Concrete: Formal / Informal: Helps reader conceive concept, visualize, makes abstract concrete Speaker Reliable / Objective / Subjective / Age / Authority / Knowledge / Experience / Education / Ethical appeal / Beliefs Establishes reliability and perspective of speaker and validity of argument Appeals to audience Ethical, Logical, Emotional Appeals Logos: By presenting ideas in logical and coherent fashion, author or speaker helps reader understand and accept arguments. Ethos: establishes reliability in speaker and fosters trust on part of audience. Pathos: draws on reader or listener’s emotions (fear / pity) and interests so that they will be sympathetic to cause and inclined to accept arguments being presented Figurative Language Simile / Metaphor / Personification / Irony / Apostrophe / Hyperbole / Understatement / Synecdoche / Metonymy Through comparison or exaggeration the writer / speaker assists the reader in
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