HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY - Chapter 1 Introduction to...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology June 6, 2010 1-1 Anatomy & Physiology directly affect your life everyday Anatomy is the oldest medical science 1600 B.C. first mention by Egyptians of anatomy Physiology is the study of function Biochemistry Biology Chemistry Genetics Historian of Anatomy & Physiology Grecian Period Hippocrates (460-337 BC) - attribution of disease to natural causes rather than gods' displeasure - beginning of observation medicine - use of logic and reason Individual's health relied on 4 humors - BLACK BILE, GREEN BILE, BLOOD, PHLEGM The humors were associated with the four elements (air, fire, earth, & water), which in turn corresponded to a pair of the qualities (hot, cold, dry, and moist). A proper and evenly balanced mixture of the humors was characteristic of health of body and mind; an imperfect balance resulted in disease. Grecian Period Cont. Sanguine Personality if BLOOD was predominant humor (passionate) Melancholic Personality if BLACK BILE was predominant (depressed) Phlegmatic Personality if PHLEGM was predominant (sluggish, calm) Choleric Personality if YELLOW BILE was predominant (angry/mean) Grecian Period, cont. Aristotle (384-332 BC) - pursued scientific method, investigated embryology (chick heart) thought that the heart was the seat of intelligence Erasistratus (300 BC) - father of physiology - observations of nerves, blood vessels vivisection of animals & dissection of humans Roman Period Scientific advancement stifled - restricted dissections Galen (130-201 AD) - most influential writer for 1500 years 500 medical papers, explanations of organ systems (physician at a gladiator arena) believed in humoral theory Middle Ages (Fall of Roman Empire, 476 AD) Medicine treating wounds, setting broken bones, lancing boils Cadaver dissections prohibited (against Christian sanctity of body) Renaissance (14 th 16 th centuries) rebirth of science Change in view on dissections Showed that the body was Gods design Da Vinci's anatomical illustrations (late 1400s) Vesalius (1514-64) Father of anatomy Battlefield surgeon, De Humani Corporis Fabrica ( On the fabric of the human body - illustrations/descriptions of organ systems) 1632 Rembrandts Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp (thief was dissected) 17 th 18 th Centuries Explanation of blood flow - Harvey (1628), father of modern physiology Development/use of microscope 19 th 20 th Centuries Cell Theory smallest functional unit of life Structure & Function (1-3) Anatomy is structure &...
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This note was uploaded on 07/13/2011 for the course BIOL 2401 taught by Professor Watson during the Summer '10 term at Richland Community College.

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HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY - Chapter 1 Introduction to...

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