Chapter 1 - Chapter1IntroductiontoAnatomyandPhysiology

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy and physiology affect your life everyday Anatomy is the oldest medical science 1600 B.C. – first mention by Egyptians of anatomy Physiology is the study of function Biochemistry Biology Chemistry Genetics GRECIAN PERIOD Hippocrates  (460-337 BC) - attribution of disease to natural causes rather than gods' displeasure - beginning of observation  medicine - use of logic and reason  Individual's health relied on 4 humors - BLACK BILE, GREEN BILE, BLOOD, and PHLEGM The humors were associated with the four elements (air, fire, earth, and water), which in turn corresponded to a pair of the  qualities (hot, cold, dry, and moist).  A proper and evenly balanced mixture of the humors was characteristic of health of body and mind; an imperfect balance  resulted in disease.  Sanguine  personality - if BLOOD was predominant humor (passionate) Melancholic  personality - if BLACK BILE was predominant (depressed) Phlegmatic  personality - if PHLEGM was predominant (sluggish, calm) Choleric  personality - if YELLOW BILE was predominant (angry/mean) Aristotle  (384-332 BC) - pursued scientific method, investigated embryology (chick heart)  - thought that the heart was the seat of intelligence Erasistratus  (300 BC) - father of physiology - observations of nerves, blood vessels ROMAN PERIOD  scientific advancement stifled - restricted dissections Galen  (130-201 AD) - most influential writer for 1500 years -500 medical papers, explanations of organ systems (physician at a gladiator arena) -believed in humoral theory MIDDLE AGES (fall of Roman Empire 476 AD) Medicine = treating wounds, setting broken bones, lancing boils Cadaver dissections prohibited (against Christian sanctity of body) RENAISSANCE - (14th-16th centuries) rebirth of science Change in view on dissections = showed that the body was God’s design
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Chapter 1 - Chapter1IntroductiontoAnatomyandPhysiology

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