Chapter 2 - Chapter2Chemistry...

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Chapter 2 – ChemistryIntroduction to Chemical ReactionsReactants - Materials going into a reactionProducts - Materials coming out of a reactionMetabolism - All of the reactions that are occurring at one timeChemical ReactionsBasic Energy ConceptsEnergy - The power to do workWork - A change in mass or distanceKinetic energy - Energy of motionPotential energy - Stored energyChemical energy - Potential energy stored in chemical bondsa.Decomposition reaction (catabolism) - Breaks chemical bonds AB A + BHydrolysis: ABCDE + H2ABC—H + HO—DEb.Synthesis reaction (anabolism) - Forms chemical bondsA + B ABDehydration synthesis (condensation)ABC—H + HO—DE ABCDE + H2Oc.Exchange reaction - Involves decomposition first, then synthesisAB + CD AD + CBd.Reversible reaction - A reaction that occurs simultaneously in both directionsAB A + BAt equilibrium the amounts of chemicals do not change even though the reactions are still occurring:0.Reversible reactions seek equilibrium, balancing opposing reaction rates 1.Add or remove reactants: reaction rates adjust to reach a new equilibrium Enzymes - chemical reactions in cells cannot start without help; Activation energy is the amount of energy needed to get a reaction startedEnzymes are proteincatalysts that lower the activation energy of reactionsa.Exergonic (exothermic) reactions - Produce more energy than they useb.Endergonic (endothermic) reactions - Use more energy than they produceInorganic Versus Organic CompoundsNutrients - Essential molecules obtained from foodMetabolites - Molecules made or broken down in the bodyInorganic - Molecules not based on carbon & hydrogenCarbon dioxide, oxygen, water, and inorganic acids, bases, and saltsOrganic - Molecules based on carbon & hydrogenCarbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acidsImportance of Water - Water accounts for up to two-thirds of your total body weightsolution is a uniform mixture of two or more substances; it consists of a solvent, or medium, in which atoms, ions, or molecules of another substance, called a solute, are individually disperseda.Solubility - Water’s ability to dissolve a solute in a solvent to make a solutionb.Reactivity - Most body chemistry occurs in waterc.

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Term
Fall
Professor
WATSON

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