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Chapter 2 - Chapter2Chemistry Metabolism Chemical Reactions...

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Chapter 2 – Chemistry Introduction to Chemical Reactions Reactants  - Materials going into a reaction Products  - Materials coming out of a reaction Metabolism - All of the reactions that are occurring at one time Chemical Reactions Basic Energy Concepts Energy - The power to do work Work - A change in mass or distance Kinetic energy - Energy of motion Potential energy  - Stored energy Chemical energy - Potential energy stored in chemical bonds a. Decomposition reaction  (catabolism) - Breaks chemical bonds  AB  A + B Hydrolysis: ABCDE + H 2 ABC—H + HO—DE b. Synthesis reaction  (anabolism) - Forms chemical bonds A + B  AB Dehydration synthesis (condensation) ABC—H + HO—DE  ABCDE + H 2 O c. Exchange reaction - Involves decomposition first, then synthesis AB + CD  AD + CB d. Reversible reaction  - A reaction that occurs simultaneously in both directions AB  A + B At equilibrium the amounts of chemicals do not change even though the reactions are still occurring: 0. Reversible reactions seek equilibrium, balancing opposing reaction rates  1. Add or remove reactants: reaction rates adjust to reach a new equilibrium  Enzymes - chemical reactions in cells cannot start without help;  Activation energy  is the amount of energy needed to get a reaction started Enzymes  are  protein   catalysts  that lower the activation energy of reactions a. Exergonic  ( exothermic ) reactions - Produce more energy than they use b. Endergonic ( endothermic ) reactions - Use more energy than they produce Inorganic Versus Organic Compounds Nutrients  - Essential molecules obtained from food Metabolites  - Molecules made or broken down in the body Inorganic  - Molecules not based on carbon & hydrogen Carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, and inorganic acids, bases, and salts Organic  - Molecules based on carbon & hydrogen Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids Importance of Water - Water accounts for up to two-thirds of your total body weight solution is a uniform mixture of two or more substances; it consists of a  solvent , or medium, in which atoms, ions, or  molecules of another substance, called a  solute , are individually dispersed a. Solubility  - Water’s ability to dissolve a  solute  in a  solvent  to make a  solution b. Reactivity  - Most body chemistry occurs in water c.
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