Chapter 6-8 - Chapter6AnIntroductiontotheSkeletalSystem

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Chapter 6 - An Introduction to the Skeletal System Skeletal system includes Bones of the skeleton Cartilages, ligaments, and connective tissues Functions of the Skeletal System a. Support b. Storage of minerals (calcium) c. Storage of lipids (yellow marrow) d. Blood cell production (red marrow) e. Protection f. Leverage (force of motion) Classification of Bones - Bones are classified by i. Shape ii. Bone markings (surface features; marks) iii. Internal tissue organization A.   Bone Shapes Long bones are long and thin; are found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, and toes  Flat bones are thin with parallel surfaces; are found in the skull, sternum, ribs, and scapulae Sutural bones are small, irregular bones; are found between the flat bones of the skull Irregular bones have complex shapes; examples: spinal vertebrae, pelvic bones  Short bones are small and thick; examples: ankle and wrist bones Sesamoid bones are small and flat; develop inside tendons near joints of knees, hands, and feet B. Bone Markings Depressions or grooves - along bone surface Projections - where tendons and ligaments attach 1.     At articulations with other bones  Tunnels - where blood and nerves enter bone STRUCTURE 1. Long Bone Diaphysis Epiphysis  - wide part at each end with articulation with other bones; mostly spongy (cancellous) bone covered with compact  bone (cortex) Metaphysis  - where diaphysis and epiphysis meet 2. Flat Bone - the  parietal bone  of the skull; resembles a sandwich of spongy bone between two layers of compact bone Within the cranium, the layer of spongy bone between the compact bone is called the  diploë Bone (Osseous) Tissue 0. Dense, supportive connective tissue that contains specialized cells 1. Produces solid matrix of calcium salt deposits around collagen fibers Characteristics of Bone Tissue Dense  matrix , containing deposits of calcium salts Osteocytes (bone cells)  within  lacunae  organized around blood vessels Canaliculi  form pathways for blood vessels for exchange of nutrients and wastes Periosteum  covers outer surfaces of bones; consists of outer  fibrous cellular  layers Matrix Minerals  - two thirds of bone matrix is  calcium phosphate , Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Reacts   with   calcium hydroxide ,   Ca(OH) 2   to   form   crystals   of   hydroxyapatite ,   Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2   which  incorporates other calcium salts and ions Matrix Proteins  - one third of bone matrix is protein fibers ( collagen ) The Cells of Bone make up only 2% of bone mass Bone contains four types of cells
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Chapter 6-8 - Chapter6AnIntroductiontotheSkeletalSystem

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