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Chapter 9 - (articulations) Joint (range of motion 0...

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Chapter 9 - An Introduction to Articulations Articulations  - body movement occurs at  joints  (articulations) where two bones connect Joint Structure  determines direction and distance of movement ( range of motion ) 0. Joint strength decreases as mobility increases Classification of Joints - two methods of classification i. Functional classification  is based on range of motion of the joint ii. Structural classifition relies on the anatomical organization of the joint a. Functional Classifications i. Synarthrosis (immovable joint) - no movement; fibrous or cartilaginous connections that may fuse over time ii. Amphiarthrosis (slightly movable joint) - little movement; fibrous or cartilaginous connections iii. Diarthrosis (freely movable joint) - more movement (synovial joints); subdivided by type of motion 2. Structural Classifications i. Bony ii. Fibrous iii. Cartilaginous iv. Synovial 1. Functional Classifications i. Synarthroses (immovable joints) - are very strong 0. Edges of bones may touch or interlock  1. Four types of synarthrotic joints: i. Suture - bones interlocked  0. Are bound by dense fibrous connective tissue and are found only in skull ii. Gomphosis - fibrous connection (periodontal ligament); binds teeth to sockets iii. Synchondrosis - is a rigid cartilaginous bridge between two bones: 0. epiphyseal cartilage of long bones 1. between vertebrosternal ribs and sternum iv. Synostosis - fused bones, immovable: 2. metopic suture of skull 3. epiphyseal lines of long bones ii. Amphiarthroses - more movable than synarthrosis 1. Stronger than freely movable joint 2. Two types of amphiarthroses 0. syndesmosis : bones connected by ligaments 1. symphysis : bones separated by fibrous cartilage iii. Synovial joints (diarthroses) - also called movable joints 1. At ends of long bones within  articular capsules  & lined with synovial membrane  Synovial Joints - components of Synovial Joints Articular cartilages pad articulating surfaces within  articular capsules  & prevent bones from touching; smooth  surfaces lubricated by  synovial fluid  reduce friction  Synovial fluid contains slippery proteoglycans secreted by fibroblasts Functions of synovial fluid: 4. lubrication 5. nutrient distribution 6. shock absorption Accessory structures 1.
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