Chapter 18 (Notecards) - Homeostasis Intercellular...

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Homeostasis & Intercellular Communication
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Ch. 18 -  Introduction to the Endocrine System a. Direct Communication: b. relatively rare c. Paracrine Communication: d. Uses chemical signals to transfer info. from cell to cell w/in  single tissue; most common form of intercellular communication e. Endocrine Communication:   f. Endocrine cells release chemicals (hormones) into bloodstream:  simultaneously
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2. Synaptic Communication:   a. Across synaptic clefts – neurotransmitters Target Cells
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Ch. 18 -  Introduction to the Endocrine System Cells that possess receptors needed to bind & “read” hormonal messages
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Hormones I
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Ch. 18 -  Introduction to the Endocrine System i. Stimulate synthesis of enzymes or structural proteins ii. Increase or decrease rate of synthesis iii. Turn existing enzyme or membrane channel “on” or “off”
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Hormones II
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Ch. 18 -  Introduction to the Endocrine System Can be divided into three groups  i. Amino acid derivatives: ii. T4, Epinephrine, melatonin iii. Peptide hormones: iv. FSH, ADH, PRL v. Lipid derivatives: vi. Testosterone, estrogen, cortisol ii. Circulate freely or bound to transport proteins
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Secretion & Distribution of Hormones
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Ch. 18 -  Introduction to the Endocrine System Free Hormones: remain functional for less than 1 hour Diffuse out of bloodstream: Bind to receptors son target cells Are broken down and absorbed: By cells of liver or kidney Are broken down by enzymes: In plasma or interstitial fluids
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Thyroid & Steroid Hormones
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Ch. 18 -  Introduction to the Endocrine System
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o Remain in circulation much longer o protein o Bloodstream contains substantial reserve of bound hormones
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Hormone Receptor Ch. 18 -  Introduction to the Endocrine System
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o A protein molecule to which a particular molecule binds strongly: Responds to several different hormones Diff tissues have different combinations of receptors Presence or absence of specific receptor determines hormonal sensitivity
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Ch. 18 -  Introduction to the Endocrine System
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Bind to receptor proteins at outer surface of plasma membrane (extracellular receptors) Cannot have direct effect on activities inside target cell Use intracellular intermediary to exert effects
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1 st Messenger
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Ch. 18 -  Introduction to the Endocrine System Leads to 2 nd  messenger May act as enzyme activator, inhibitor or cofactor Results in change in rates of metabolic reactions
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Chapter 18 (Notecards) - Homeostasis Intercellular...

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