Chapter 20 - Introduction to the Cardiovascular System

Chapter 20 - Introduction to the Cardiovascular System -...

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Chapter 20 - Introduction to the Cardiovascular System The Pulmonary Circuit  - carries  blood  to and  from  gas  exchang e  surface s  of lungs The Systemic Circuit  - carries  blood  to and  from  the  body Blood  alternates  between  pulmonary  circuit and  systemic  circuit Three Types of Blood Vessels  (discus s e d  more  in next  chapter) i. Arteries  - carry  blood   away  from heart ii. Veins - carry blood  to  heart   iii. Capillaries  - networks   between  arteries  and  veins Capillarie s   (exchang e   vess els):   exchang e   materials   between   blood   &  tissues;   materials   include   dissolved  gase s,  nutrients,  wastes   Four Chambers of the Heart i. Right atrium - collects  blood  from  systemic  circuit ii. Right ventricle - pumps  blood  to pulmonary  circuit iii. Left atrium - collects  blood  from  pulmonary  circuit iv. Left ventricle - pumps  blood  to systemic  circuit  Anatomy of the Heart: great   veins   and   arteries   at   the   base;   pointed   tip   is   apex; surrounded   by   mediastinum The Pericardium - double  lining  of the  pericardial  cavity    i. Parietal  pericardium:  outer  layer ii. Visceral  pericardium:  inner  layer  of pericardium Pericardial cavity  is between  parietal  and  visceral  layers:  contains  pericardial  fluid Pericardial sac : fibrous  tissue  that surrounds  and  stabilizes  heart Superficial Anatomy of the Heart Atria : thin-walled  with expandable  outer   auricle  (atrial appendag e )   Sulci: Coronary sulcus :   divides   atria   and   ventricles ; Anterior interventricular sulcus posterior interventricular sulcus of cardiac  muscle The Heart Wall 1. Epicardium  (outer  layer):  visceral  pericardium  that covers  the  heart 2. Myocardium (middle  layer):  muscular  wall of heart;  conc entric  layers  of cardiac  muscle   0. Atrial myocardium  wraps  around  great  vess els;  two  divisions  of ventricular   myocardium 3. Endocardium (inner  layer):  simple  squam ou s  epithelium Cardiac Muscle Tissue have  intercalated  discs  that  interconne ct   cardiac muscle cells; secured  by   des m o s o m e s  & linked  by  gap  junctions; Characteristics of Cardiac Muscle Cells i. Small  size ii. Single,  central  nucleus iii. Branching  interconne ctions  between  cells iv. Intercalated  discs Internal Anatomy and Organization i. Interatrial septum : separates  atria   ii. Interventricular septum : separates  ventricles iii. Atrioventricular (AV) valves connect  rt atrium  to  rt ventricle  & lt atrium  to  lt ventricle;  fibrous  
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Chapter 20 - Introduction to the Cardiovascular System -...

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