Chapter 23 - Introduction to the Respiratory System

Chapter 23 - Introduction to the Respiratory System -...

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Chapter 23 - Introduction to the Respiratory System Cells make energy for maintenance, growth, defense & division; need to use O 2 2 Oxygen is obtained from the air by diffusion across delicate exchange surfaces of lungs; carried to cells by cardiovascular system,  which also returns carbon dioxide to the lungs   Components of the Respiratory System - Five Functions of the Respiratory System i. Provides extensive gas exchange surface area between air and circulating blood ii. Moves air to and from exchange surfaces of lungs iii. Protects respiratory surfaces from outside environment iv. Produces sounds v. Participates in olfactory sense Organization of Respiratory System below larynx Respiratory Tract: consists of a  conducting respiratory  portion:  Alveoli are air-filled pockets within the lungs where all gas exchange takes place Respiratory Epithelium great (about 35 times the surface area of the body) Respiratory Mucosa lamina propria); lines the conducting portion of respiratory  system  The Lamina Propria - underlying layer of areolar tissue that supports the respiratory epithelium 0. 1. Conducting portion of lower respiratory system has smooth muscle cells that encircle lumen of bronchioles Structure of Respiratory Epithelium: alveolar epithelium is delicate, simple squamous epithelium that contains scattered  alveoli Respiratory Defense System Components of the  Respiratory Defense System    2. Mucous cells and mucous glands produce mucus that bathes exposed surfaces 3. Cilia sweep debris trapped in mucus toward the pharynx ( mucus escalator ) 4. Filtration in nasal cavity removes large particles 5. Alveolar macrophages engulf small particles that reach lungs  Upper Respiratory Tract The Nose - Air enters respiratory system through nostrils into nasal vestibule; nasal hairs are in  nasal vestibule first particle filtration system The Nasal Cavity - the  nasal septum divides nasal cavity into left and right 6. Mucous secretions from paranasal sinus and tears clean and moisten the nasal cavity 7. Superior portion of nasal cavity is the olfactory region; provides sense of smell Air flow from vestibule to internal nares through  
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Chapter 23 - Introduction to the Respiratory System -...

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