Chapter24Outline - Chapter 24 The Digestive System I The...

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Chapter 24: The Digestive System I. The Digestive System: An Overview A. Objectives 1. Identify the organs of the digestive system and list their major functions. 2. Describe the functional histology of the digestive tract. 3. Explain the processes by which materials move through the digestive tract. 4. Outline the mechanisms that regulate digestion. a. digestive system b. digestive tract c. accessory organs B. Functions of the Digestive System a. ingestion b. mechanical processing c. digestion d. secretion e. absorption f. excretion g. defecation II. The Digestive Organs and the Peritoneum 1. Mesenteries a. mesenteries b. greater omentum - fat deposits and lymph nodes c. mesentery proper d. mesocolon 2. Peritoneum – visceral and parietal; peritonitis; fluid normally sterile unless bacteria enter A. Histological Organization of the Digestive Tract 1. The Mucosa - with lamina propria: stratified squamous (mouth to esophagus & then anus). The rest mostly simple columnar ; also goblet cells a. The Digestive Epithelium - enteroendocrine cells b. The Lamina Propria - muscularis mucosae 2. The Submucosa - areolar connective tissue a. submucosal plexus, blood vessels & lymphatics 3. The Muscularis Externa – 2-3 layers of smooth muscle (longitudinal and circular) a. parasympathetic stimulation enhances mobility b. bunches up to become sphincters or valves c. myenteric plexus 4. The Serosa - visceral peritoneum B. The Movement of Digestive Materials 1. Peristalis 2. Segmentation 3. Mass movement C. Control of Digestive Function 1. Neural Mechanisms - local control via enteric NS (plexus within muscle of intestine, esophagus, stomach), its neurons communicate with glands and muscle layers receptors for reflexes within wall (stretch receptors, chemoreceptors) 2. Hormonal Mechanisms - peptides from endocrine cells 3. Local Mechanisms - various cytokines, particularly histamine, as well as effect of pH
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