Chapter 25 - Introduction to Metabolism

Chapter 25 - Introduction to Metabolism -...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 25 - Introduction to Metabolism  Cells break down organic molecules to obtain energy used to generate ATP Most energy production takes place in mitochondria  Metabolism  refers to all chemical reactions in an organism Cellular Metabolism functions Essential Functions: Nutrient Pool contains all organic building blocks cell needs to provide energy & create new cellular components; source of  substrates for catabolism and anabolism Catabolism: breakdown of organic substrates to release energy used to synthesize high-energy compounds (e.g., ATP)  Anabolism: the synthesis of new organic molecules ; i n energy terms anabolism is an “uphill” process that forms new chemical  bonds Functions of Organic Compounds: perform structural maintenance & repairs; store nutrient reserves  Organic Compounds Glycogen: most abundant storage carbohydrate; a branched chain of glucose molecules Triglycerides: most abundant storage lipids; primarily of fatty acids Proteins: most abundant organic components in body; perform many vital cellular functions  Carbohydrate Metabolism: glucose +  oxygen   carbon dioxide + water  Glucose Breakdown occurs in small steps which release energy to convert ADP to ATP One molecule of glucose nets 36 molecules of ATP Glycolysis: breaks down glucose in cytosol into smaller molecules used by mitochondria; does not require oxygen: anaerobic  reaction Aerobic Reactions (cellular respiration) occurs in mitochondria, consumes O 2 ; breaks 6-carbon glucose i nto  two 3-carbon pyruvic acid Mitochondrial ATP Production:  in adequate O 2 TCA Cycle (citric acid cycle) : function of the citric acid cycle is to remove hydrogen atoms from organic molecules and transfer  them to coenzymes CH 3 CO - CoA + 3NAD + FAD + GDP + P i  + 2 H 2  CoA + 2 CO + 3NADH + FADH 2  + 2 H +  + GTP coenzymes and oxygen; produces more than 90% of ATP used by body, results in 2 H 2  + O 2   2 H 2 O Electron Transport System (ETS) is key reaction in  oxidative phosphorylation Oxidation and Reduction:  The two reactions are always paired
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 5

Chapter 25 - Introduction to Metabolism -...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online