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Vocab-Ch-12 - Chapter 1 Introduction and Research Methods...

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Chapter 1: Introduction and Research Methods Psychology – the scientific study of behavior and mental processes (p. 4). Behavior – The actions or reactions of a person or animal in response to external or internal stimuli (p. 4). Empirical evidence – information acquired by direct observation and measurement using systematic scientific methods (p. 4). Psychoanalytic school – school formed by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud (p. 7). Behaviorist perspective – objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior; the “mind” is like a “black box” that is unobservable and unmeasureable (p. 7). Humanist perspective – stresses free-will, self-actualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth- seeking (p.8). Cognitive perspective – thoughts, perception, and information processing (p. 8). Basic research – research conducted to advance scientific knowledge rather than for practical application (p. 8). Scientific method – cyclical and cumulative, and scientific progress comes from repeatedly challenging and revising existing theories and building new ones (p. 12). Informed consent – a participant’s agreement to take part in a study after being told what to expect (p. 14). Debriefing – informing participants after a study about the purpose of the study, the nature of the anticipated results, and any deception used (p. 14). Experiment – a carefully controlled scientific procedure that determines whether variables manipulated by the experimenter have a casual effect on other variables (p. 16). Independent variable (IV) – variable that is manipulated to determine its casual effect on the dependent variable (p. 16). Dependent variable (DV) – variable that is measured; it is affected by (or dependent on) the independent variable (p.16).
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