Click to edit Master subtitlestyle Individual Differences in Organizations Prof. John Kammeyer-Mueller MGT 5246
Who are you?•Think about how you would introduce yourself to someone–What arethe things you would tell them so that they would know thereal you?–What arethe things about you that makeyou unique?•Think also about peopleyou like–What arethe ways you would describeyour friends? –What characteristics do they havethat makethem who they are?–How areyou similar? How areyou different?
Person or Situation=Trait or State? •What reactions might a person have? •How do personality traits play into this situation?
Person or Situation=Trait or State?•Traits–Shown across a variety of situations (global)–Shown across a variety of time periods (stable)–Brought about by genetic explanations or childhood experiences–Explain why not all peopleact the same way in the same situation•States–A specific event triggers them (local)–Subside after the trigger is gone (unstable)–Brought about by specific external factors in the environment–Explain why people generally act in similar ways to the same situation
TheContinuum of Traits and States Moods Low stability High stability Global Local States • Angry • Talkative • Motivated • Happy Traits • Hostility • Extroversion • Achievement motivation • Optimism
Thinking About How You’ve Changed and Stayed the Same •Think back to your childhood–Imaginea timewhen you weredoing something that is a lot like what you would do now; something that really gets at your enduring personality–Now imaginesomething that’s different about how you used to act when you were a kid that’s very different than you’d act now–How areyou similar? How areyou different?
Longitudinal Stability of Personality as a Factor of Time From Scheurger, Zarrella, & Hotz, 1989; used 89 independent samples in this analysis
Stability of CoreAffect and Personality Scores • Personality scores are related to perceptions of life events, so personality and situation areco- determinant • This is consistent with the interactionist model of personality • Vaidya, Gray, Haig, &
Test-Retest Meta Analysis of Self-Esteem Trzesniewski, Donnellan, & Robins, 2003
Why Is Self-Esteem Consistent Over Time? • Think of reasons why peoplewho havehigh self-esteemtend to keep high self-esteem, and peoplewho havelow self-esteem tend to keep low self-esteem – Feedback from theenvironment is consistent (e.g., similar social support network) – Behavior is consistent over time – Performance/skills/IQ – Dispositional affect
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- Spring '08
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