Click to edit Master subtitlestyle Individual Differences in Organizations Prof. John Kammeyer-Mueller MGT 5246
Thinking About Stress • Write down major sources of stress • Write down methods for coping • As a class – Most common sources of stress – Most common coping activities • Why do employers care about this?
Life Stressors • Death of spouse=100 • Divorce=73 • Separation=65 • Major injury/illness=53 • Marriage=50 • Fired=47 • Reconciliation=45 • Pregnancy=40 • Sexual difficulties=39 • New family member=39 • Business readjustment=39 • Child leaving home=29 • In-law trouble=29 • Boss trouble=23 • Change in residence=20 • Change to new school=20 • Change in church=20 • Mortgage=17 • Change in sleep=16 • Vacation=13
Important Stress Concepts • Hindrance stressors – Induced by hassles, boredom, red tape, confusion about responsibilities, and other factors that reduceproductive responses – Related to negative physical symptoms, dissatisfaction, and poor performance • Challengestressors – Induced by difficult assignments, pressure to perform, autonomy, and other factors that increase productiveresponses – Related to satisfaction and positiveperformance Both producephysiological arousal and psychological tension; thedifferenceis in interpretation and resolution of stressors
How Stress Was Discovered • Hans Selye ’s early rat research – Injected them with ovarian hormones to seethe body’s reaction – Consistently found a threefold reaction • Enlargement of the adrenal cortex • Shrinking of the lymph structures (thymus, lymph nodes, etc.) • Ulcers found in the stomach – Initial disappointment • These reactions appeared no matter which hormonehe used • He realized that rather than producing failed results for a specific hormone he wanted to study, he ’d discovered a non-specific reaction to biological threats • Resistance to his theory: he was studying the physiological response to “dirty
Defining Stress and theGeneral Adaptation Syndrome • Stress is a statemanifested by a specific syndromewhich consists of all thenon-specifically induced changes within a biologic system(fromSelye) – Thesyndromeis specific, meaning that thereare very clear and consistent parts of the bodily system that areactivated – It is non-specifically induced, meaning that it is occurs due to literally hundreds of assaults on thebody’s system, including nearly every physical illness, injury, and intense psychological states
Physical Stages of theStress Response Stressor Hypothalamus and pituitary Adrenal Thymus lymph node Stomach Whiteblood cells Noticethat thenervous system is not involved at all. Thestress reaction described by Selyeis entirely an action of theendocrinesystem.
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- Spring '08