Chapter_1_v1

Chapter_1_v1 - Historical Background Mechanical Age Abacus...

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Unformatted text preview: Historical Background Mechanical Age Abacus 500BC. Analytical Engine 1823. Charles Babbage. Augusta Ada Byron. Electrical Age Colossus 1943. ENIAC Electronics Numerical Integrator and Calculator, 1946 University of Pennsylvania. Historical Background Programming Advancements Machine language. Von Neumann machine. Accepts instructions and stores them in memory. Assembly language. High level programming languages. Machine independent. FLOW-MATIC, FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, RPG. BASIC, C/C++, PASCAL, ADA. JAVA, PERL, Python, Tcl/Tk, Visual suites, C#. Historical Background The Microprocessor Age. Intel 4004 4 bits microprocessor. 45 instructions. Fabricated with P-channel MOSFET. 50KIPs 1 ounce in weight. Intel 8008, 8080, 8085, Motorola MC6800, Zilog Z8, Z80, MOS Technology 6502. 8 bits microprocessors. Historical Background Intel 80X86 family of processors. 16, 32, 64 bits processors. CISC. 5MHz, 3.4GHz. Cache. Superscalar. Historical Background CPU Coprocessor 8k L1 Cache 80486DX Pentium CPU 1 CPU 2 Coprocessor 16K L1 Cache Historical Background Pentium Pro 16K L1 Cache 256K L2 Cache CPU 1 CPU 2 CPU 3 Coprocessor Historical Background 32k L1 Cache 512K or 256K L2 Cache Pentium II, Pentium III, or Pentium 4 CPU 1 CPU 2 CPU 3 Coprocessor Typical Microprocessor System Typical Memory Interface Memory Organization Sequence of bytes each with a unique physical address. Data types: Byte. Word. Double word . Memory Organization Memory Organization Little Endian Notation The 80386 stores the least significant byte of a word or double word in the memory location with the lower address. Positional Number System A number is represented by a string of digits where each digit position has an associated weight. The weight is based on the radix of the number system. Some common radices: Decimal. Binary. Octal. Hexadecimal. Notation Decimal. W = 123 10 = 123d = 123 Binary. X = 10 2 = 10b Octal. Y = 45 8 = 45q = 45o Hexadecimal. Z = 0A3 16 = 0A3h = 0xA3 Radix 10 Numbers Decimal....
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This note was uploaded on 07/18/2011 for the course EE 2120 taught by Professor Aravena during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Chapter_1_v1 - Historical Background Mechanical Age Abacus...

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