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Chapter_1_v1

Chapter_1_v1 - Mechanical Age Abacus 500BC Analytical...

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Historical Background Mechanical Age Abacus – 500BC. Analytical Engine – 1823. Charles Babbage. Augusta Ada Byron. Electrical Age Colossus – 1943. ENIAC – Electronics Numerical Integrator and Calculator, 1946 University of Pennsylvania.
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Historical Background Programming Advancements Machine language. Von Neumann machine. Accepts instructions and stores them in memory. Assembly language. High level programming languages. Machine independent. FLOW-MATIC, FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, RPG. BASIC, C/C++, PASCAL, ADA. JAVA, PERL, Python, Tcl/Tk, Visual suites, C#.
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Historical Background The Microprocessor Age. Intel 4004 4 bits microprocessor. 45 instructions. Fabricated with P-channel MOSFET. 50KIPs 1 ounce in weight. Intel 8008, 8080, 8085, Motorola MC6800, Zilog Z8, Z80, MOS Technology 6502. 8 bits microprocessors.
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Historical Background Intel 80X86 family of processors. 16, 32, 64 bits processors. CISC. 5MHz, 3.4GHz. Cache. Superscalar.
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Historical Background CPU Coprocessor 8k L1 Cache 80486DX Pentium CPU 1 CPU 2 Coprocessor 16K L1 Cache
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Historical Background Pentium Pro 16K L1 Cache 256K L2 Cache CPU 1 CPU 2 CPU 3 Coprocessor
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Historical Background 32k L1 Cache 512K or 256K L2 Cache Pentium II, Pentium III, or Pentium 4 CPU 1 CPU 2 CPU 3 Coprocessor
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Typical Microprocessor System
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Typical Memory Interface
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Memory Organization Sequence of bytes each with a unique physical address. Data types: Byte. Word. Double word .
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Memory Organization
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Memory Organization
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Little Endian Notation The 80386 stores the least significant byte of a word or double word in the memory location with the lower address.
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Positional Number System A number is represented by a string of digits where each digit position has an associated weight. The weight is based on the radix of the number system. Some common radices: Decimal. Binary. Octal. Hexadecimal.
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Notation Decimal. W = 123 10 = 123d = 123 Binary. X = 10 2 = 10b Octal. Y = 45 8 = 45q = 45o Hexadecimal.
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