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lec04 - LECTURE 04 Announcements Course web-page is up...

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LECTURE - 04
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Announcements Course web-page is up http://web.cse.iitk.ac.in/~cs422/index.html Lecture scribe notes: HTML please lec-notesXY-1.html or lec-notesXY-2.html Images in directory “images/” lecXY-1-anything.ext or lecXY-2-anything.ext Please email to one of the TAs Extra classes?
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Topics so far... Quantifying computer performance Amdahl's law Performance equation, CPI Effect of cache misses on CPI This week: Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) Pipelining: concept and issues
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Instruction Set Instruction set is the interface between hardware and software Interface design Central part of any system design Allows abstraction/independence Challenges: Should be easy to use by the layer above Should allow efficient implementation by the layer below Software Hardware Interface (Instruction set)
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Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) Main focus of early designs (1970s, 1980s) Mutual dependence between ISA design and: Machine organization Example: caches Higher level languages and compilers (what instructions do they want?) Operating systems Example: atomic instructions, paging...
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The Design Space Instruction Operand(s) Result operand What operations? e.g. add, sub, and 1 How many explicit operands? e.g. 0, 1, 2, 3 2 Non-memory operands from where? e.g. stack, register 3 Memory-operand access modes e.g. direct, indexed 4 Type and size of operand e.g. word, decimal 5 Other design choices: determining branch conditions, instruction encoding
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Classes of ISAs Stack Push A Push B Add Pop C Accumulator Load A Add B Store C Register- memory Load R1, A Add R1, B Store C, R1 Register- register Load R1, A Load R2, B Add R3, R1, R2
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