Lecture37-2010

Lecture37-2010 - Exam 4/Cumulative Final Online Course...

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1 Exam 4/Cumulative Final Monday, Dec 13, 11:15 am-1:45 pm Location TBA Both exams handed out at same time. Exam 4: – Lectures 30-39 (10% Simon, 60% Li, 30% Haltiwanger) – Format same as other midterms. – Approximately 10 points/lecture Cumulative Final: – 40 multiple choice questions. – Approximately 1 question/lecture. TA Review: Mon, Dec 6, 6:50-10:00 pm, Javits 100 Faculty Review: Friday, December 10, 4-6 pm, ESS 001 Online Course Evaluations • Website: http://tlt.stonybrook.edu/evaluate – Need NetID and password. • Site open until Dec 12. • Win a free iPAD! • Completely anonymous. • Instructors do not see results until after grades are posted. Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism Lecture 37 Chapters 15-4, 16-3, 4C Regulation depends on the purpose of a pathway Pathways for synthesis and degradation are separate, allowing reciprocal regulation: – Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis – Glycogen breakdown/Glycogen synthesis Purpose of carbohydrate metabolism is different depending on cell type.
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2 Carbohydrate metabolism in muscle • Goal: – Metabolize glucose for own energy needs. – Store glucose for own needs. • Regulation based on Energy State of individual cells Energy State of Cell • High energy state has high ratios of: – ATP/(ADP+AMP) – NADH/NAD+ – Acetyl-CoA/CoA • High energy state activates glycogen synthesis. • Low energy state activates glycogen breakdown. Figure 16-6 Regulation in Muscle. Breaks down glycogen for rapid bursts of energy - ATP, G6P + AMP, Epinephrine - Epinephrine Page 409 Epinephrine (adrenaline): “Fight or Flight” hormone. Catecholamine (derived from Tyr). Made in adrenal cortex. Leads to production of cAMP.
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3 Levels of cAMP controlled by relative activities of adenylate cyclase and cAMP phosphodiesterase: + Epinephrine Protein Kinase A Also called cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Heterotetramer: – 2 Regulatory subunits (R) bind cAMP – 2 Catalytic subunits (C) phosphorylate target proteins Activated by cAMP: R 2 C 2 + 4 cAMP <=> 2 C + R 2 (cAMP) 4 (inactive) (active) Figure 16-10 Epinephrine cAMP Glycogen Breakdown Muscle Kinase cascade. Amplification at each
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Lecture37-2010 - Exam 4/Cumulative Final Online Course...

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