Air, Noise, Radiation Ch 10 - LIVING WITH THE EARTH CHAPTER...

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LIVING WITH THE EARTH CHAPTER 10 AIR, NOISE, AND RADIATION OBJECTIVES FOR THIS CHAPTER A student reading this chapter will be able to: 1. List and explain the reasons why air pollution is considered a national and global threat. 2. Discuss and describe the chemical and physical components of the atmosphere, and explain the mechanisms of dispersion. 3. Describe the regulatory efforts in the U.S. with emphasis on titles of the 1990 CAAA. 4. Discuss the issues behind stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. 5. List and discuss the nature, sources, and health and welfare effects of the criteria pollutants. 6. List, discuss, and describe the major sources of indoor air pollution, including health effects and methods of control. 7. Define noise pollution and radiation. List the major sources and known health effects of noise and radiation. INTRODUCTION History o Edward I and II of Great Britain severely punished air polluters o Until 1930s (Meuse Valley, Belgium.) air pollution considered a nuisance. Inversion o Air pollution episodes in Donora, PA, London England, Los Angeles, CA, NY City causes many deaths. Air pollution threatens global ecology o Consensus grows that industrial emissions such as carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, are contributing to global warming . o Chlorofluorocarbons may be depleting stratospheric ozone
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o Acid deposition Air pollution threatens human health o asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, cancer, respiratory infections, irritation, cardiovascular disease Air pollution threatens living plants and human-made structures o forest decline, corrosion of metal, soiling of buildings, degradation of paints, textiles, leather, paper, and dyes. THE ATMOSPHERE AND METHODS OF DISPERSION Chemical Characteristics Nitrogen (N2) represents a constant 78 percent of the 500 billion tons of air surrounding the planet, while oxygen (O2) remains steady at 21 percent, and argon (Ar) at 0.9 percent. ( Fig. 10- 1 ). Human technology and explosive populations could potentially alter this balance causing changes in the earth-atmosphere system that jeopardizes our sustainability. Physical Characteristics Solar Radiation o The life on earth requires a continuing source of energy. o More than 99 percent of the energy from the sun is within the spectral range of 150 to 4,000 nanometers (0.15 to 4.0 µm) ( Fig. 10-2 ). o Solar energy that is absorbed by ground surfaces is radiated back as heat in longer, lower energy, infrared wavelengths. o Greenhouse Effect If this reflected heat energy (infrared) is absorbed by infrared-absorbing gases or water vapor, it traps the warmth and reflects it back to the earth's atmosphere (Fig. 10-3 ). o
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2011 for the course PHC 6357 taught by Professor Mlynarek,s during the Summer '08 term at University of South Florida - Tampa.

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Air, Noise, Radiation Ch 10 - LIVING WITH THE EARTH CHAPTER...

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