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LIVING WITH THE EARTH CHAPTER 7 EMERGING DISEASES OBJECTIVES FOR THIS CHAPTER A student reading this chapter will be able to: o 1. Differentiate the emerging infectious diseases in the United States and those occurring worldwide. o 2. List and recognize the 6 major reasons associated with the emergence of infectious diseases. o 3. Explain the likely reasons for the emergence of specific infectious diseases. o 4. Identify, list, and explain the etiological agents, the epidemiology, and the disease characteristics of the major emerging infectious diseases including: influenza, hanta virus, dengue fever, ebola, AIDs, Cryptosporidiosis, Malaria, Lyme disease, Tuberculosis, Streptococcal infections, and E. coli infections. o 5.Recognize and explain the practical approaches to limiting the emergence of infectious diseases. INTRODUCTION Infectious diseases continue to be the foremost cause of death worldwide. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported a 58 percent rise in deaths from infectious diseases since 1980. Emerging Diseases in the United States o Cryptosporidium o AIDS o Escherichia coli o Hanta Virus o Lyme Disease o Group A Strep Emerging Diseases Worldwide What is an Emerging Infectious Disease? o The term "emerging infectious diseases" refers to diseases of infectious origin whose incidence in humans has either increased within the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future. REASONS FOR THE EMERGENCE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE There are a number of specific explanations responsible for disease emergence that can be identified in most all cases (Table 7-1a-d). o Table 7-1a o Table 7-1b o Table 7-1c o Table 7-1d
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Factors Responsible for the Emergence of Infectious Disease. o (1) Ecological changes; o (2) Human demographic changes; o (3) Travel and commerce; o (4) Technology and industry (globalization); o (5) Microbial adaptation and change (resistance); and o (6) Breakdown of public health measures. Ecological Changes o Agriculture Agricultural or economic development. People may expand into an area where the animal host thrives, the animal host may expand into human living areas. o Climate Extreme weather patterns, as a result of natural fluctuations in the atmosphere or man- made changes (i.e., global warming) have routinely been followed by outbreaks of disease. El Niño, Vibrio, Hanta Virus Human Demographic Changes o Increased population density in urban areas- migration in hopes of a better, more comfortable lifestyle- has surpassed basic services, including clean water supplies, sanitary conditions such as sewage disposal and adequate housing. o Public health measures in overcrowded cities are often strained or unavailable to large groups of the urban impoverished living in inner city slums or in shanty towns on the periphery, thereby increasing the opportunity for emerging infections such as HIV, cholera, and dengue. Travel and Commerce
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2011 for the course PHC 6357 taught by Professor Mlynarek,s during the Summer '08 term at University of South Florida - Tampa.

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