Foodborne Illness Ch 8

Foodborne Illness Ch 8 - LIVING WITH THE EARTH CHAPTER 8...

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LIVING WITH THE EARTH CHAPTER 8 FOODBORNE ILLNESS OBJECTIVES FOR THIS CHAPTER A student reading this chapter will be able to: o 1. Recognize, list, and explain the major reasons for food protection programs. o 2. List and describe the major categories and subcategories of agents causing foodborne illness. o 3. Describe the major foodborne pathogens including parasitic,viral, and bacterial diseases. o 4. Explain the mechanisms by which these pathogens cause foodborne illness, and describe how the life cycles of these organisms are important in the transmission of disease. o 5. List and describe the major disease symptoms in humans for these foodborne pathogens. o 6. Describe and explain the HACCP system in protecting against foodborne disease. o 7. Discuss recent regulatory efforts in the area of food protection. INTRODUCTION Worldwide Distribution of Foodborne Pathogens o 1.5 billion children under the age of five suffer from diarrhea, and tragically, over 3 million die as a consequence. o Reasons for varying prevalence among geographic regions Climate Population demographics Nutritional status Cultural aspects (KAPs) Reasons for Food Protection Program ( Fig. 8-1 ) o The implementation of programs to minimize foodborne diseases is important because of the problems associated with morbidity, mortality, and economic loss. o Morbidity and Mortality Due to Foodborne Disease In the United States there are as many as 33 million cases of foodborne illness which are responsible for an estimated 9 thousand deaths annually. The causative agents and modes of transmission (means through which a causative agent is spread) are known in less than 1% of the severe gastroenteritis cases. o Economic Consequences of Foodborne Illness Medical Costs Loss of Wages Recall of foods Investigation Litigation CAUSATIVE AGENTS OF FOODBORNE ILLNESS ( Table 8-1 )
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Foodborne illness is defined as any illness incurred from the consumption of contaminated food. o Radionuclides o Chemicals o Food Additives o Poisonous Plants and Animals o Pathogens Radionuclides o Radiation is introduced into the food chain naturally from mineral deposits beneath the earth's surface or from the atmosphere in the form of ultraviolet and cosmic rays. o Radionuclides, which are deposited in the environment accidentally, or intentionally, as a direct result of human activity are of much greater concern. Chernobyl India vs. Pakistan Chemicals o Humans are responsible for many chemical contaminants presently found in food. o Between 80%-90% of our exposure to potentially harmful chemicals is from food consumption. o Chemicals enter the food from packaging materials, agricultural applications of pesticides and fertilizers, by adding preservatives or colorings to foods, or by the release of industrial chemicals into the environment ( Table 8-2 ). Packaging Materials
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Foodborne Illness Ch 8 - LIVING WITH THE EARTH CHAPTER 8...

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