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Hazardous Waste Ch 11 - LIVING WITH THE EARTH CHAPTER 11...

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LIVING WITH THE EARTH CHAPTER 11 SOLID & HAZARDOUS WASTE OBJECTIVES FOR THIS CHAPTER A student reading this chapter will be able to: o 1. Discuss and explain the consequences of improper solid waste disposal. o 2. List and characterize the typical municipal waste stream. o 3. Describe and discuss the methods of reducing the solid waste stream through reuse and recycling efforts. o 4. Describe the methods of collection and disposal of municipal solid wastes including the benefits and problems associated with landfills and incinerators. o 5. Differentiate the types of hazardous waste, and discuss reasons for proper disposal, giving some case examples. o 6. List and describe the various methods of hazardous waste control emphasizing waste reduction, volume or hazard reduction, and long-term storage and disposal options. o 7. Discuss the positive and negative aspects of clean-up efforts under "Superfund" and some of the major concerns regarding its future operation. INTRODUCTION Cities have historically been centers for filth and disease. o Nairobi "The Stinking City in the Sun" o Western Europe prior to the early 19th century Much of the world continues to inappropriately dispose of refuse which: o (1) invites the proliferation of rodents and insects; o (2) becomes a source of contamination to groundwater; o (3) pollutes ambient air when combusted; o (4) facilitates the spread of debris around the dumping site; o (5) lowers property values about the site; and o (6) encourages the spread of disease from microorganisms and toxic chemicals. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 forbade open dumping and introduced the concept of the sanitary landfill. Land fill siting and "NIMBY" The USEPA endorsed several different practices to reduce municipal solid waste (MSW) that include: o (1) source reduction (including reuse of products and backyard composting of yard trimmings); o (2) recycling of materials (including composting); and o (3) waste combustion (preferably with energy recovery) and landfilling. DEFINITION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE Definition of MSW
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o Materials in MSW include paper and paperboard, yard trimmings, food wastes, plastics, glass, metal, and wood wastes. o Examples of the types of MSW in each of these categories is listed in Table 11-1 . Characterization of MSW o MSW does not include everything that is landfilled in Subtitle D landfills (RCRA Subtitle D), but excludes municipal sludge, industrial non-hazardous waste, construction and demolition waste, agricultural waste, oil and gas waste, and mining wastes ( Fig 11-1 ). o The total amount of MSW materials generated (thousands of tons) from 1960 to 1996 are shown in Figure 11-2 . o Paper and paperboard materials represented the largest component at 38.1% percent, followed by yard trimmings (13.4%), and food wastes (10.4%) ( Fig. 11-3 ).
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