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Unformatted text preview: Descriptive Epidemiology Descriptive Epidemiology Part 1 Dr. H. Stockwell Basic assumptions of epidemiology Â¡ Human disease does not occur at random Â¡ Causal and preventive factors can be identified through systematic investigation of different populations or subgroups of individuals in a population in different places or times Epidemiology Â¡ Divided in to two major components: Descriptive Epidemiology Analytic Epidemiology (hypothesis testing) Â¡ Both important to our understanding of disease Â¡ Cannot ask relevant questions about disease etiology without a firm understanding of the descriptive epidemiology Descriptive Epidemiology Â¡ Designed to describe the existing distribution of variables without regard to causal associations associations Â¡ measure prevalence and incidence of disease/health Â¡ Generate hypotheses for analytic studies CANNOT TEST HYPOTHESES USING DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES Descriptive Epidemiology Time WHEN WHO WHERE Distribution of disease: Descriptive Epidemiology Â¡ Person : age, sex, race/ethnicity, SES, occupation, lifestyle occupation, lifestyle Â¡ Place : neighborhood, state, country, environment Time : date of exposure date of Â¡ Time : date of exposure, date of diagnosis etc Person Â¡ Who gets disease? Characteristics of person -- ex: gender and age Death rates (DR) per 100,000 population from coronary disease in the U.S.,1981, by age and gender Age White men White women DR men/women 25-34 9.4 4.2 2.2 35-44 60.6 16.2 3.7 45-54 265.6 71.2 3.7 55 64 708 7 243 7 2 9 55-64 708.7 243.7 2.9 65-74 1669.9 769.4 2.2 75-84 3751.5 2359.0 1.6 75 84 3751.5 2359.0 1.6 85+ 8596.0 7215.1 1.2 Race and Ethnicity in Epidemiologic Research Â¡ Often used variables in research â€“ frequently used to assess the association of these variables on disease outcomes Â¡ Biologically race is ill defined, poorly understood and may be of questionable validity Race has been described as an arbitrary system of visual Â¡ Race has been described as an arbitrary system of visual classification (Fullilove, MT, 1998) Â¡ DNA evidence indicates genetic diversity is a continuum with no clear breaks that delineate racial groups Â¡ Since 2000 census individuals can self identify with more than one racial group than one racial group From Gordis L 3 rd ed. NO AUDIO ON THIS SLIDE. CLICK NEXT TO CONTINUE....
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2011 for the course PHC 6000 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '08 term at University of South Florida - Tampa.
- Summer '08