unit 5 pt 1 - Welcome to Section II II Cohort Studies...

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Cohort Studies Part 1 Cohort Studies – Part 1 Dr Borenstein Dr. Borenstein NO AUDIO ON THIS SLIDE. CLICK NEXT TO CONTINUE >> W l t S ti II Welcome to Section II Amy R. Borenstein, Ph.D., M.P.H. Professor of Epidemiology Room 2109 Friday 2 4pm 974 6670 Room 2109 Friday 2-4pm 974-6670 [email protected] Ph.D. from University of Washington, Seattle (1988) M.P.H. from University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (1980) Professional history: 1 year at EPA/Washington D.C., 1 year at Versar, Inc post-Master’s Switched from env. Epi to chronic disease; PhD at UW; worked 9 years at Battelle Memorial Institute; left UW; worked 9 years at Battelle Memorial Institute; left 1996 for USF Welcome to Section II Research Interests: 24 years in neuroepidemiology Focus on Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia, mild cognitive impairment Among first case-control studies in literature (dissertation) Case-control study of the potential role of aluminum in AD Cohort study of 1,985 Japanese-Americans (1991-2002), Kame Project, part of the Ni-Hon-Sea cross-national study of dementia and its subtypes among individuals of Japanese descent Cross-sectional studies of African Americans (Hillsborough Elder African Cross-sectional studies of African Americans (Hillsborough Elder African American Life Study) and (prospective) Caucasians (Charlotte County Healthy Aging Study) Hurricane Charley Study Currently working on collaborations to set up a large cohort study of about 10,000 community-dwelling residents in Shanghai, China to study risk and preventive factors for brain atrophy, mild cognitive impairment and dementia Interests in gene-environment interactions, early detection of dementing illnesses and finding at-risk subjects in asymptomatic stages; ethnic differences in etiologic associations for dementia Multiple sclerosis Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) St d d i Study designs Observational Descriptive: Experimental Clinical trials I i i l Case report Case series Cross-sectional/ Intervention trials Prevention trials Correlational/ecologic Analytic: Prospective cohort Retrospective (or historical) cohort Case-control Nested case-control M f i ti Measures of association Analytic design “a study designed to examine associations, a study designed to examine associations, commonly putative or hypothesized causal relationships” Last JM, ed. A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3rd edition. NY, Oxford University Press, IEA, Inc, 1995 Does Exposure (E) cause disease outcome (D)? P(y) = x P(D) = E A i ti Associations The extent to which things tend to occur together (non-directional) OR The statistical dependence between two variables In epidemiology, we would like to x y establish causal associations (uni- directional) x y
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A i ti ’d Associations, con’d Prevalence ratio or odds ratio can tell us what the Prevalence ratio or odds ratio can tell us what the association is between E and D but can not necessarily tell us which came first (E Æ D or D Æ E, “chicken-or-egg”) Under some circumstances e g when E is a gene Under some circumstances, e.g., when E is a gene,
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