unit 8 questions

unit 8 questions - Unit 8 Practice Questions Epidemiology...

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Unit 8 Practice Questions Epidemiology 6000 Question 1 In a study of endometrial cancer and use of exogenous estrogen, we observe an odds ratio of 2.5. However, we suspect that menopausal status may confound this association. For menopausal status to be a confounder, which of the following are required? a. Menopausal status must be associated with both endometrial cancer and exogenous estrogen use (and menopausal status can not be a result of exogenous estrogen use). b. Menopausal status must be evenly distributed between the exposed and the nonexposed. c. Menopausal status must be evenly distributed between the cases and the controls (and menopausal status can not be a result of exogenous estrogen use). d. Menopausal status must be a stronger risk factor for endometrial cancer compared to exogenous estrogen use. Question 2 An investigator decides that socioeconomic status is indeed a confounder of the association between hormone use and the occurrence of cancer in a case-control study. The investigator looks at the following list of options to control for confounding. Which of the following options can she use? Choose ALL that apply. a. Stratify the sample into two groups: low socioeconomic status and high socioeconomic status. Then calculate an odds ratio for each stratum, and compare the crude to the stratified odds ratios. b. Use multiple logistic regression modeling, incorporating as independent variables estrogen use and socioeconomic status, and breast cancer as the dependent variable. c. Include in the sample only women who have a yearly income of $40,000 or more. d. Match the cases of breast cancer to controls without breast cancer by socioeconomic status. e. Use the appropriate hypothesis test to calculate the p -value for the association between socioeconomic status and estrogen use. f. Use frequency matching to ensure that the proportion of women of high and low socioeconomic status is similar in the case group and the control group.
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Question 3 Effect-modification refers to the: a. Design in which persons are randomly allocated to receive a therapy and a placebo. b. Situation when interviewers gather information differently from cases and controls. c. Situation when the magnitude of the association between the exposure and the disease varies by a third factor. d.
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unit 8 questions - Unit 8 Practice Questions Epidemiology...

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