unit 11 1 - Health and Disease Unit 11 Part 1 Introduction...

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Unit 11 – Part 1 Introduction to the Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases Outbreak Investigation Dr. A. Sanchez-Anguiano Health and Disease ± Definition of Health. ± “Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.” (W.H.O. constitution, 1964) ± DIS-EASE , the opposite of ease, when something is wrong with a bodily function. The terms “disease”, “illness”, and “sickness” are loosely interchangeable, but are better regarded as not interchangeable, but are better regarded as not wholly synonymous: ± Disease is a physiological, psychological dysfunction ± Illness is a subjective state of the person who feels aware of not being wel well ± Sickness is a state of social dysfunction Causation of Disease ± One of the functions of epidemiology is to search for causes of disease, for the etiology . To discover the agent, host, and To discover the agent, host, and environmental factors which affect health, to provide the scientific basis for the prevention of disease and injury and the promotion of of disease and injury and the promotion of health. ± Causeof disease is defined as a factor (characteristic behavior event is defined as a factor (characteristic, behavior, event, etc.) that influences the occurrence of disease ± Increase in the factor leads to an increase in disease. ± Reduction in the factor leads to a reduction in disease. Etiology (Merriam-Webster on-line) ± Etiology’s etymology: Medieval Latin aetiologia statement of causes, from Greek aitiologia, from aitia cause 1: CAUSE , ORIGIN ; specifically : all of the causes of a disease or abnormal condition 2 a branch of knowledge concerned with 2 : a branch of knowledge concerned with causes; : a branch of medical science concerned with the causes and origins science concerned with the causes and origins of diseases Models of Causation ± Germ theory: Pasteur and Koch ± Henle-Koch postulates Epidemiologic triad (ecological model) ± Epidemiologic triad (ecological model). ± Host, environment, and agent. ± Hill’s causality criteria ± Multifactorial Model (Rothman’s causal pies) ± Component causes: sufficient and necessary causes. ± Social-Ecological Model ± It replaces the agent with personal behavior factors. ± Holistic Model (W.H.O.) ± The concept of health is an expansion of the social-ecological model. ± Wellness Model ± Physical activity, nutritional awareness, stress management, self- responsibility. Theories of Infectious Diseases ± Past scholars sought ways to explain how infectious diseases work, and their underlying biologic mechanisms. ± Assumption of epidemiology that disease is not random, ± sought explanations to assist in predicting spread of infectious diseases.
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Theories of Infectious Diseases Germ Theory ± Pasteur & Koch ± Specific disease caused by specific type of organism (etiology) of organism Henle-Koch’s Postulates HenleKoch s Postulates ± Provided a scientific method, demonstrating the germ theory demonstrating the germ theory
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2011 for the course PHC 6000 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '08 term at University of South Florida.

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unit 11 1 - Health and Disease Unit 11 Part 1 Introduction...

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