Chem 287_Chapter 8and9

Chem 287_Chapter 8and9 - Lectures Classical Methods of...

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Lectures: Classical Methods of Chemical Analysis 1 Acid-Base Equilibria To be covered Chapter 8 Problems: 1,4,17,28 To be covered: 1) Acid Base theories 2) Water 3) Strong Acid -Bases 4) Weak Acid-Bases Solvent System Theory The Solvent System concept of acid and bases was developed for ionizable solvents. These solvents will autodissociate to yield a cation and anion: H 2 O + H 2 O ֕ H 3 O + + OH - HF + HF ֕ H 2 F + +F - HF + HF + F where Acid = cation of the solvent Base = anion of the solvent
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Lectures: Classical Methods of Chemical Analysis 2 Lewis Acid Base The Lewis' concept of acids and bases was based on electron pair movement, where: Acid = any substance which can accept an electron pair Base = any substance which can donate an electron pair H 2 O: + H + ֕ H 2 O:H + :OH - + H + ֕ H:OH H 3 N: + BF 3 ֕ H 3 N:BF 3 Bronsted-Lowry Theory Th B t d Lt f i d d b The Bronsted-Lowry concept of acid and bases was developed to cover both ionizable and non-ionizable solvents. The basis of the theory states that: Acid = any substance which can donate a proton Base = any substance which can accept a proton
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Lectures: Classical Methods of Chemical Analysis 3 Conjugate Pairs From the BL theory, for any acid there must be an associated base and the reverse of a base: conjugate pair-- Acid ֕ H + + Base Since H + do not float around freely, two conjugate pairs are needed for any solvent: HCl + H 2 O ֕ H 3 O
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2011 for the course CHEM 287 taught by Professor Burns during the Fall '08 term at McGill.

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Chem 287_Chapter 8and9 - Lectures Classical Methods of...

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