Chapter 2 - Rutherfords Model of the Atom atomic radius ~...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–15. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
atomic radius ~ 100 pm = 1 x 10 -10 m nuclear radius ~ 5 x 10 -3 pm = 5 x 10 -15 m Rutherford’s Model of the Atom If the atom is Florida Field (“Swamp”), then the nucleus is a marble on the 50-yard line. A nucleus is about 1 ten-trillionth of average atomic volume!
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
mass p = mass n = 1840 x mass e -
Image of page 2
Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons = atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons Isotopes are atoms of the same element (X) with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei X A Z H 1 1 H (D) 2 1 H (T) 3 1 U 235 92 U 238 92 Mass Number Atomic Number Element Symbol Atomic number, Mass number and Isotopes
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The Isotopes of Hydrogen
Image of page 4
6 protons, 8 (14 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons 6 protons, 7 (13 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in C 14 6 ? How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in C 13 6 ?
Image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Isotopic Abundance (%-abundance) = {[(number of atoms of a given isotope in the sample)] [(total # of atoms of all isotopes of that element in the sample)]} x 100% Example: 12 C is 98.89% of all naturally-occurring C 13 C is 1.11% of all naturally-occurring C 14 C is <0.01% of all naturally-occurring C
Image of page 6
Period Group Alkali Metals Noble Gases Halogens Alkaline Earth Metals
Image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808) 1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms . 2. All atoms of a given element are identical, having the same size, mass and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements. 3. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. In any compound, the ratio of the numbers of atoms of any two of the elements present is either an integer or a simple fraction. 4. A chemical reaction involves only the separation, combination, or rearrangement of atoms; it does not result in their creation or destruction.
Image of page 8
2 Dalton’s Atomic Theory
Image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
8 X 2 Y 16 X 8 Y +
Image of page 10
A molecule is an aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical forces H 2 H 2 O NH 3 CH 4 A diatomic molecule contains only two atoms H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , Br 2 , HCl, CO A polyatomic molecule contains more than two atoms O 3 , H 2 O, NH 3 , CH 4
Image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 12
A molecular formula shows the exact number of atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a substance An empirical formula shows the simplest whole-number ratio of the atoms in a substance H 2 O H 2 O molecular empirical C 6 H 12 O 6 CH 2 O O 3 O N 2 H 4 NH 2
Image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Nomenclature of Binary Covalent Compounds Some have common names (H 2 O water, NH 3
Image of page 14
Image of page 15
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern