Chapter 9 - Chapter 7 : Location of electrons around atomic...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7 : Location of electrons around atomic nuclei (electronic configurations ) based on energy considerations and wave functions (quantum numbers, shells/subshells, orbitals ); valence-shell electrons vs core electrons Chapter 8 : Electron configurations of valence-shell electrons, effective nuclear charge Z eff , and core-electron shielding, determine chemical characteristics and behavior of atoms: atomic radii, ionization energies, and electron affinities Chapter 9 : How does the above information apply to chemical bonding? Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts Chapter 9 Why bond at all? Bonding lowers the potential energy between positive and negative particles (ions or nucleus-electrons) Three types of bonding : 1) Ionic : electron transfer between a metal (low IE) + nonmetal (high EA) each atom forms configuration of a noble gas electrostatic attraction between ions draws ions into 3-D lattice crystalline solid made up of formula units 2) Covalent : electron sharing between nonmetals (both have high EA but also high IE, so sharing instead of transfer of electrons) localized sharing of valence electrons (covalent) forms separate molecules 3) Metallic : delocalized electron sharing between metal and metal, each of which has a low IE and small EA (evenly-distributed pooling of electrons among nuclei) malleable and ductile solids Valence electrons are the outer shell electrons of an atom. The valence electrons are the electrons that participate in chemical bonding. 1A 1 ns 1 2A 2 ns 2 3A 3 ns 2 np 1 4A 4 ns 2 np 2 5A 5 ns 2 np 3 6A 6 ns 2 np 4 7A 7 ns 2 np 5 Group # of valence e- e- configuration Lewis Dot Symbols for the Main Group (Representative) Elements & Noble Gases Li + F Li + F- The Ionic Bond 1s 2 2s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 1s 2 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 [He] [Ne] Li Li + + e- e- + F F- F- Li + + Li + F- Video: The Formation of Ionic Compounds Click Here For Video Lattice energy (E) increases as Q increases and/or as r decreases. cmpd lattice energy MgF 2 MgO LiF LiCl-2957-3938-1036-853 Q= +2,-1 Q= +2,-2 r F- < r Cl- Electrostatic (Lattice) Energy E = k Q + Q- r Q + is the charge on the cation Q- is the charge on the anion r is the distance between the ions Lattice energy (E) is the energy change (H latt ) accompanying the coalescing of gaseous ions to form a solid ionic compound Coulombs Law: Born-Haber Cycle for Determining Lattice Energy H overall = H 1 + H 2 + H 3 + H 4 + H 5 o o o o o o A...
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Chapter 9 - Chapter 7 : Location of electrons around atomic...

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