Main_ISM_ch02-1

# Main_ISM_ch02-1 - Chapter 2 Heat Work Internal Energy...

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Chapter 2: Heat, Work, Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problem numbers in italics indicate that the solution is included in the Student’s Solutions Manual. Questions on Concepts Q2.1) Electrical current is passed through a resistor immersed in a liquid in an adiabatic container. The temperature of the liquid is varied by 1ºC. The system consists solely of the liquid. Does heat or work flow across the boundary between the system and surroundings? Justify your answer. Although work is done on the resistor, this work is done in the surroundings. Heat flows across the boundary between the surroundings and the system because of the temperature difference between them. Q2.2) Explain how a mass of water in the surroundings can be used to determine q for a process. Calculate q if the temperature of 1.00-kg water bath in the surroundings increases by 1.25ºC. Assume that the surroundings are at a constant pressure. If heat flows across the boundary between the system and the surroundings, it will lead to a temperature change in the surroundings given by P q T C = . For the case of interest, 1 1 3 1000 g 4.19 Jg K 1.25 K 5.24 10 J. surroundings P q q mC T - - = - = - = - × × = - × Q2.3) Explain the relationship between the terms exact differential and state function . In order for a function f ( x,y ) to be a state function, it must be possible to write the total differential df in the form . y x f f df dx dy x y = + If the form df as written exists, it is an exact differential. Q2.4) Why is it incorrect to speak of the heat or work associated with a system? Heat and work are transients that exist only in the transition between equilibrium states. Therefore, a state at equilibrium is not associated with values of heat or work. Q2.5) Two ideal gas systems undergo reversible expansion starting from the same P and V . At the end of the expansion, the two systems have the same volume. The pressure in 2-1

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Chapter 2/ Heat, Work, Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and the First Law of Thermodynamics the system that has undergone adiabatic expansion is lower than in the system that has undergone isothermal expansion. Explain this result without using equations. In the system undergoing adiabatic expansion, all the work done must come through the lowering of U , and therefore of the temperature. By contrast, some of the work done in the isothermal expansion can come at the expense of the heat that has flowed across the boundary between the system and surroundings. Q2.6) A cup of water at 278 K (the system) is placed in a microwave oven and the oven is turned on for 1 minute during which it begins to boil. Which of q , w , and U are positive, negative, or zero? The heat
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Main_ISM_ch02-1 - Chapter 2 Heat Work Internal Energy...

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