Immunology - Immunology Review Immune system system of...

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Immune system – system of interrelated cells, tissues, and organs that are able to mount an immune response. Must maintain the ability to recognize “self” from “nonself” . Antigens An antigen is any substance that, when introduced into an animal, causes the production of an antibody that reacts specifically with the antigen. That portion of the antigen that imparts its specificity is the antigenic determinant site (this is also the site that combines with the specific antibody. Antibodies Antibodies are serum proteins ( γ -globulins) produced by lymphocytes and plasma cells in response to antigenic stimulation. Antibodies involved in blood group systems are usually IgG and IgM, but occasionally they are IgA; IgD and IgE are never involved. Classes of antibodies **REMEMBER: antibodies that are formed in response to red cells, white cells, and platelets are usually IgG and IgM . IgG: clinically significant blood group antibody cause of transfusion reactions as they react at 37 ° C (body temperature) cross placenta causing hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) There are also different subclasses of IgG, depending on the difference in amino acid sequence of the heavy chain in the constant domain IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 differ in their ability to bind complement which affects the clinical significance as complement is needed for hemolysis; IgG3>IgG1>IgG2>IgG4 (does not activate complement by the classical pathway) IgM: Generally clinically insignificant react at lower temperatures do not cross the placenta Primary Response Appears a few days after exposure, modest peak at 2 weeks, then declines IgM – followed by small amount of IgG Secondary Response re-exposure to same antigen elicits intense and accelerated anamnestic response Immunological memory carried within small lymphocyte Antibody appears within 2 days and reaches peak in 10 days Peak is higher and persists longer IgG Immune response Antibodies that are the result of antigenic stimulation are immune antibodies (usually IgG antibodies). Appear in the serum without any apparent antigenic stimulation are termed
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This note was uploaded on 07/15/2011 for the course CHM 2120 taught by Professor Dr.flynn during the Spring '10 term at University of Ottawa.

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Immunology - Immunology Review Immune system system of...

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