west_Civ_notes

west_Civ_notes - WESTERN CIV II NOTES 2 The Second...

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WESTERN CIV. II NOTES 2 The Second Industrial Revolution Now with Extra Industry (1870-1910) - The Corporation - New Techniques - New Energies - New Inventions Why ‘Second’ Industrial Revolution - Later time period: 1870-1914 - Focuses on Finished Goods, machines people can purchase; things built in factories. - Public Consumption, making goods people can purchase - Replacing things; better alternatives - Primarily happens in the U.S. and the European continent, not just Britain The Corporation - The Evolution of the Joint-Stock Company - Low-risk, and high reward - Using Limited Liability, keeping the investor safe incase the company goes bankrupt; only the money you invested in the company would be lost - The institutions become more and more anonymous as people buy into them. Don’t really know who is in charge. Horizontal Integration - Corporate Cooperation - Price fixing, two companies join together and raise prices - Anti-Union, companies joined together to keep Unions out - John D. Rockefeller: Standard Oil Vertical Integration - Monopolistic - Owning all steps in the production - Fix prices - Eliminate competition - Andrew Carnegie “Taylorism” - Mass production - Workflows - Miniminze downtown, maximize uptime. Maximum number of people working at one time. Cutting down on breaks, etc. - Repetitive tasks – each person does one task at a time. - Efficiency Biology (1860-1900) - Louis Pasteur o One of the founders of Microbiology o Vaccination o Germ Theory - Rudolf Virchow o Cell theory - Medical, Chemical Applications Chemistry - German, British
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- Soaps, Dyes, Fertilizer, Synthetics - Medicine - Affected all other fields Artificial Dyes - Sumptuary Laws o Laws that mandate what clothing one can wear depending on class and fashion. (ex. Peasants cannot wear red, etc) - Pre-Industrial Dyes: Wood, Animal Skins, Fruits, Seeds; difficult to get certain colors - Industrial: Stains and Chemicals, colors are now synthetic and chemically made. Everyone can have colorful clothes - “Democratization of Color” - Mauve! Fertilizer - Synthetic Phosphates - Rejuvenate Old Land - Opened Thousands of Acres to Farming - Critical in Easter Europe (Russia has very dry soil”) Dynamite (1866) - Alfred Nobel - Huge impact on mining and construction - 1896 – Nobel Prize Combustion - Steam = Water Pressure - Liquid fuel = explosion - Filling a chamber with liquid fuel, lighting it, and using the huge pressure inside - Result? o Extremely Efficient o Powerful o Dependable The Hunt for Oil - Petroleum Seen as most ‘efficient’ fuel - Problem? Hard to find in Europe - Solutions? o Texas – has oil o Russia – has many oil fields o The Middle East (Algeria, Saudi Arabia) has much oil Origins of Electricity - Volta-Chemical Battery (1800) - Faraday- Electromagnets (1866) - 1880s – Alternators/Transformers Let There be Light - Thomas Edison - 1879 – Lightbulb - Revolution in Lighting Henry Ford - Combines Taylorism (one person to each task) - Interchangeable parts (like Colt .45) - Combustion Engine
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- Chemistry (oil, petroleum)
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west_Civ_notes - WESTERN CIV II NOTES 2 The Second...

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