Chapter 1 Structure and Bonding

Chapter 1 Structure and Bonding - Chapter 1 Structure and...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 1 Structure and Bonding ; Acid and Bases 1. Basic Characteristic of organic compounds is that it all contain element carbon 2. Organic chemistry is the study of compounds of carbon 3. Special properties of carbon that enable to form the backbone of organic compounds a. It is a group 4A element which means it can share four valence electrons and form four strong covalent bond b. Carbon atoms can bond to one another forming long chains and rings c. Of all elements, carbon can form immense diversity of compounds just by combining it with hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. 1.1 Atomic Structure 1) Atoms consist of dense, positively charged nucleus surrounded at relatively large distance by negatively charged electrons a) Nucleus consists of subatomic particles; neutrons (electrically neutral ) and protons (positively charged). Nucleus contributes to most of the atomic mass although it is extremely small about 10 -14 to 10 -15 b) Electrons have negligible mass and orbits the nucleus at distance up to approximately 10 -10 and thus the diameter of a typical atom is about 2*10 -10 m or 200 picometers ( pm). 2) An atom is described by two numbers a) Atomic number: number of protons in nucleus b) Atomic mass : number of protons + number of neutrons 3) All the atoms of same elements have same atomic number but can have different atomic mass. a) Isotopes: Atoms of same element that have the same number of proton but different number of neutrons. In other words, atoms with same atomic number but different atomic mass/mass number. b) Isotopes have very similar chemical properties 4) Atomic weight is average mass in atomic mass units of atom of an element. 5) Distribution of electrons in an atom a) By quantum mechanical model, behaviour or specific electron in an atom can be described by wave equation. The solution to wave equation is called wave function or orbital denoted by ψ (psi). b) Orbital can be thought as a region of space around nucleus where electrons can most likely be found. c) Orbitals are organized into different layers or shells of successively larger size and energy. Different shells contain different number and kinds of orbitals. Each orbital can be occupied by 2 electrons. 1 s orbital, 3 p orbitals, 5 d orbitals and so on. 1 st shell contains only 1 s orbital, 2 nd shell contains 1 s and 3 p orbitals. 3 rd shell contains 1s, 3p and 5d orbitals. d) Orbitals have shape. There are four different orbital shapes denoted by s, p, d, f i) The s orbital is spherical with nucleus at the centre
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
ii) The p orbital has dumbbell shape. The three different p orbitals within a given shell are oriented in space along mutually perpendicular line. iii) The 4 of 5 d orbitals are clover shaped. 3 or them oriented on xy, yz and xz plane and one is oriented along x,y axis. The centre of all lies in a plane between a pair of axis. The fifth d orbital is dumbbell shape with a torus.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern