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24. AUGUSTUS (1) - 24 AUGUSTUS SETTLEMENT(1 270-272 HIS...

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24. AUGUSTUS’ SETTLEMENT (1) 270-272 HIS POSITION IN THE STATE SOLUTION, WORKED OUT -27 TO -23, WAS TO MAINTAIN THE EXTERNAL FORM OF THE REPUBLIC WHILE RESERVING THE PRE-EMINENT POWER TO HIMSELF. Augustus’ name had religious connotations HIS PREFERRED TERM FOR HIMSELF WAS PRINCEPS , FROM PRIMUS ( ”FIRST”) AND CAPUT (“HEAD’). TERM PREVIOUSLY USED FOR PRINCEPS SENATUS, ( “HEAD OF THE SENATE”), USUALLY ITS MOST SENIOR MEMBER. THE WORD IS THE SOURCE OF ENGLISH “PRINCE”). OCTAVAN HELD PROCONSULAR IMPERIUM (COMMAND). UNLIKE PREVIOUSLY PROROGUED POWER (E.G. CAESAR IN GAUL), THERE WAS NO TIME LIMIT ON HIS COMMAND, AND HIS PROVINCIA (OLD SENSE) WAS MORE THAN ONE PROVINCE (NEW SENSE). HE EXPLICITLY OUTRANKED OTHER MAGISTRATES. COMMANDED ALL ARMIES. PROVINCES UNDER HIS COMMAND WHICH HAD STANDING ARMIES THROUGH LEGATI, WITH PRAETORIAN RANK ( LEGATUS CAESARIS PRO PRAETORE.) IMPERATOR. IN REPUBLIC, AN ARMY COULD (SPONTANEOUSLY) SALUTE THEIR GENERAL AS “IMPERATOR” (COMMANDER) FOR A PARTICULARLY SUCCESSFUL CAMPAIGN, OFTEN LEADING TO A TRIUMPH. SUCH “SALUTATIONS” AS IMPERATOR BECAME LESS SPONTANEOUS, SO THAT “IMPERATOR” BECAME PART OF
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HIS NAME, USUALLY AT THE BEGINNING “ IMPERATOR C. IULIUS CAESAR OCTAVIANUS.” HENCE THE MODERN TERM “EMPEROR” AS A PATRICIAN. OCTAVIAN COULD NOT BE TRIBUNE, BUT HE EXERCISED TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS (TRIBUNICIAN POWER) , MAKING IT POSSIBLE FOR HIM TO PROPOSE OR VETO LEGISLATION, ENTERTAIN APPEALS AGAINST DECISIONS OF MAGISTRATES AND GOVERNORS. VOTED ANNUALLY, THIS IS HOW HIS REIGN IS DATED. EMPEROR BECAME MAJOR PART OF LEGAL STRUCTURE. SENATE CONTINUED TO EXIST, AND CONSULS AND OTHER MAGISTRATES WERE ELECTED EVERY YEAR. OCTAVIAN PROMOTED SOME CANDIDATES FOR MAGISTRACIES ( CANDIDATUS CAESARIS) , BUT THEY WERE FEWER IN NUMBER THAN POSSIBLE POSITIONS TOOK OVER ROLE OF CENSORS TO EVALUATE ELIGIBILITY FOR MEMBERSHIP IN SENATE, ETC.
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