LECTURE 4

LECTURE 4 - Lecture 4: Sound Change & Language...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 4: Sound Change & Language Change Language Grimm’s Law Review: Voicing, Manner, Place Review: Recall: Consonants are sounds made by Recall: considerable restriction of the airflow. considerable They can be made with or without They voicing ( [s] vs. [z], for instance). voicing [s] The airflow can be restricted completely The (‘stops’), mostly (‘fricatives’) or not much (‘liquids’, ‘glides’). much Voicing, Manner, Place Voicing, Besides differing in voicing and Besides airflow restriction, consonants differ as to where the restriction is: where at the lips (labial), lips with teeth (labiodental), lips ), between the teeth (interdental), behind the teeth (alveolar), ), against the palate (palatal) Voicing, Manner, Place Voicing, Every consonant has a characteristic Every value for voicing, a characteristic voicing characteristic manner of production, and a place of manner place articulation. articulation. These features define families of These sounds that all share one feature in common. common. What is the shared feature? What f, v, θ, ð s, z, ʃ, All fricatives (manner) f, ʃ, ʒ ɹ, l, m, d, w All voiced (voicing) s, p, ʃ, f, θ s, f, All voiceless (manner) b, f, w, m, v All labial (place) k, d, p, g, t All stops (manner) t, d, s, z, n All alveolar (place) Families of Sounds & Grimm’s Law Grimm’s Why do you need to know all this about Why English consonants? English To understand sound changes that happened To over time. over In the history of its development, English has In undergone considerable sound changes that affected families of sounds, not just individual sounds. Language Constantly Changing Language In the mind of the average person, language is In associated with writing, and the idea of a printed page. printed But writing is only a convention. As long as a language is in use, it is in a state As of constant change. of Language Constantly Changing Language Each speaker is constantly and unconsciously Each changing his/her speech. changing There’s no such thing as uniformity in There’s language. language. The speech of one community differs from The that of another. that The speech of different individuals of the same The community differs. community So, the language of any community is subject to changes that occur in the speech of its Dialectal Differences Dialectal When two groups of people, sharing the same When language, are separated, their languages begin to drift apart. to At first, the differences among such languages At are not great, and they are mutually intelligible dialects (speakers can understand each other). each Over time, differences among languages grow, Over and speakers from different groups can no longer understand each other. longer Different Languages Different Even though there are considerable differences Even among different languages, it is possible to recognize certain common features. recognize German: Milch English: milk Russian: молоко Russian: молоко Different Languages: Examples Different English: father English: father Dutch: vader Dutch: vader Gothic: fadar Gothic: fadar Old Norse: fað ir Old fa German: Vat er German: Vat Greek: pat er Greek: p at ̄ Sanskrit: patir Sanskrit: patir Different Dialects: Examples Different In American & British English, there are In interdental fricatives, /ð/ and /θ/, as in the interdental /, words rather/ˈɹæðəɹ/ and think /θɪŋk/. rather and In Irish English, these words are pronounced In /ˈɹæd əɹ/ and /t ɪŋk/. In fact, this is true of several dialects of In English. English. No dialect of English has changed just one of these sounds (e.g. /d/ to /ð/) and left the other these /) unchanged. unchanged. Sound change happens to features, not segments features We can understand why dialects change either both We interdentals, or neither one, if we recognize that change happens to articulatory features, not to individual consonants and vowels. individual Consonants and vowels are made up of groups of Consonants made features. features. In Irish English interdentals, the feature fricative In fricative changed to the feature stop. stop. Consequently, the same change happened to both the Consequently, voiced interdental /ð/, and the voiceless one /θ/. voiced An example from the history of English English An accumulated series of sound changes can An change one group of people’s speech so much that it is no longer comprehensible to another, related group. related Mutual intelligibility is one of the criteria that can be used to distinguish a ‘dialect’ from a new ‘language.’ new By analyzing such sound changes, 19th By century linguists (Grimm & Rask) showed that English and Latin are descended from a common ancestor language. common The Proto-Indo-European The PIE was (now extinct) once a single language PIE spoken by a group of people in Central Europe. Europe. It was the parent tongue to all modern IndoEuropean languages including English European (Germanic) and Hindi (Indo-Iranian). (Germanic) The Proto-Indo-European The This group of people split into several groups. Some groups migrated eastwards (India), Some westwards (Spain, Italy, France), far north (Scandinavia), to Eastern Europe and Russia. (Scandinavia), The Proto-Indo-European Language Families Language Anatolian Indo-Aryan Hellenic Italic Italic Slavic Baltic Germanic Armenian Albanian Tocharian The various groups today The The Germanic/Romance split The The split between the groups whose languages would The eventually become Proto-Germanic and Protoeventually Romance happened about 2500 BC. English is a Germanic language descended from English Proto-Germanic. Proto-Germanic. Latin was a direct descendant of Proto-Romance, and Latin is the ancestor of all the modern Romance languages (Spanish, French, Italian, Romanian, etc.) (Spanish, Sound change in Germanic Sound The English ancestor branch, Proto-Germanic, The underwent a very regular sound change, which made it sound different than other dialects descended from Proto-Indo-European. descended The proto-Romance ancestor branch didn’t The undergo this sound change. undergo Compare the consonants in the following Compare English words and their Latin counterparts: English Latin/English cognates: Latin/English Latin pater pedem penna tri­ tu dent­ cordis octo­ quis English father foot feather three thee tooth heart eight who Latin labia dent genu­ genus granum fundus foro frag­ haedus English lip tooth knee kin corn bottom bore break goat What Latin consonants correspond to what English ones? to Looking at our list of correspondences, we have the Looking following: Latin consonant on left, corresponding English consonant on the right: English p↔f b↔p f↔b t↔ θ d↔t k ↔h g ↔k h↔g General Patterns of Change General If it were just the case that segments randomly If changed into other segments, we wouldn’t be able to make any predictions. able But we can see that it would be more sensible But to think of the sound change in terms of articulatory features. articulatory Voiceless Stops → Voiceless Fricatives Fricatives In the Germanic branch, voiceless stops In changed to voiceless fricatives, quite generally —keeping the same place of articulation! p → f, t → θ , k → h This change is not random. /p/, /t/, /k/ are all voiceless stops /f/, /θ/, /h/ are all voiceless fricatives /, produced at almost the same place of articulation. of The change is manner of articulation The manner Voiced Stops → Voiceless Stops Stops What about voiced stops? What Latin /b/ corresponds to English /p/ Latin /d/ corresponds to English /t/ Latin /g/ corresponds to English /k/ Devoicing at the same place of articulation. b → p , d → t, g → k Voiceless Fricatives Voiceless What about voiceless fricatives? What Latin /f/ corresponds to English /b/ Latin /h/ corresponds to English /g/ Voiced Aspirated Stops → Voiced Unaspirated Stops in Proto-German Stops Another set of PIE sounds underwent changes Another in both Proto-Germanic and Proto-Italic. in Voiced aspirated stops Voiced /bh/, /dh/, /gh/ → /b/, /d/, /g/ in Proto/b /b/, Germanic. Sanskrit bhrata dhwer Sanskrit bhrata dh ghosti Germanic brother door Germanic guest Voiced Aspirated Stops → Voiceless Fricatives in Proto-Italic Proto-Italic In the Proto-Italic, the PIE voiced aspirated In stops became voiceless fricatives (/dh/ stops disappeared, was replaced by /bh/, and changed disappeared, /, into /f/. Sanskrit bhrata dhwer ghosti Sanskrit bh Latin frater foris Latin hostis PIE Voiced aspirated stops → voiceless PIE fricatives fricatives /bh/, /dh/, /gh/ → /f/, /f/, /h/ in Proto-Italic. Patterns of Sound Change Patterns In any case, it seems clear that what changed In was not individual consonants, but rather particular articulatory features. Rather than say ‘d became t’ and ‘g became Rather k’, we can do better: k’, Voiced stops in Proto-Indo-European became Voiced voiceless stops in Proto-Germanic (but this didn’t happen in Proto-Romance). didn’t Understanding gaps in patterns Understanding In modern English, voiceless stops are In aspirated when they appear at the beginning of stressed syllables. of They are unaspirated elsewhere. They elsewhere. [p ɪt] vs. [sp ɪt] vs. [sɪp] Imaginary future change Imaginary [p ɪt] vs. [spɪt] vs. [sɪp] Imaginary future change Imaginary [fɪt] vs. [spɪt] vs. [sɪp] Then two words that used to contain the same Then consonant might end up containing different consonants entirely. consonants Because spelling is conservative, we might Because still spell the word with a ‘p’ — we might spell acquire yet another ‘inexplicable’ spelling irregularity! irregularity! This actually happened! In fact, this is the true pattern that the Grimm’s In Law sound change above took. Law Voiceless stops that were part of consonant Voiceless clusters did not undergo the change, not presumably because they were different allophones. allophones. Remember octo~eight? Remember Also: hostis ~ guest, spuo ~ spew Also: ho uo Grimm’s Law: Summary Grimm’s 1st set of sounds: voiceless stops → voiceless fricatives fricatives p → f, t → θ , k → h 2nd set of sounds: voiced stops → voiceless stops stops b → p , d → t, g → k Grimm’s Law: Summary Grimm’s 3rd set of sounds: voiced aspirated stops → voiced stops in Proto-Germanic. voiced /bh/, /dh/, /gh/ → /b/, /d/, /g/ /b/, voiced aspirated stops → voiceless fricatives in Proto-Italic. fricatives /bh/, /dh/, /gh/ → /f/, /f/, /h/ /f/, Grimm’s Law: Summary Grimm’s A chain reaction Voiced aspirated stops → regular voiced Voiced stops stops Voiced stops → voiceless stops Voiceless stops → voiceless fricatives Exercise 1 Exercise Proto-Indo-European piskterkerdbeudentgelbhregdhēghosti- English fish thresh heart puff tooth cool break do guest Exercise 2 Exercise Proto-Indo-European tersdhwerkergrenokaput bherpleusbhedhdekm ger- English thirst door horn corn head bear fleece bed ten (Germ tehun) crow ...
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