LECTURE 7

LECTURE 7 - Lecture 7: Parsing, Language Acquisition,...

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Lecture 7: Parsing, Language Acquisition, Misparsing, and Allophones
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Parsing: From a Stream of Sounds into Words Last class, we identified various English Phonotactic Rules (14). Can you identify those 14 Rules and explain them all? As a native speaker of English, you are unconsciously aware of the phonotactic rules. You apply them every day when listening to other people’s speech.
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Parsing When you listen to the speech stream, the process of analysis you apply is called parsing.
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What happens when you parse speech? 1. Identify the stream of sound as (your) language. 2. Identify the individual segments — the consonants and vowels — that make up the stream of sound. 3. Identify the right groupings of segments, i.e. identify the phonological words being used. 4. Identify the listemes being used by comparing the phonological words with items in your mental lexicon. 5. Look up the meanings of the listemes in your mental lexicon. 6. Compute the structure and meaning of the sentence.
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Parsing Just to remind you -- speech doesn’t come with pauses inserted between words except at the beginning and end. How do we identify the units in an utterance? How do you get from this string of sounds /w ʊʤəlajkfɹajzwɪðæt/ to “Would you like fries with that?”
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Parsing You simply apply phonotactic rules! /w ʊʤəlaj kf ɹaj zw ɪðæt/ The sequence [kf] is not a possible onset or coda. The sequence [zw] is not a possible coda. You know how to break this sound stream into phonological words.
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A baby hears /w laj ʊʤə kf aj ɹ zw ðæt/ ɪ The baby doesn’t know any words yet. How does he or she figure out that /lajk/ is a word, and so is /f ajz ɹ /, but not /zw ðæt ɪ / or /ajz/ or /laj/? Worse yet, how does the baby figure out that / ɹ ajz/, /æt/ and / ə lajk/ aren’t words in this sentence ? After all, they ARE words of English. ..
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Babies are very smart They’re keeping track of patterns of sound that they hear. For instance, they’ll keep track of the sounds they hear at the beginnings and ends of utterances over a long period of time. This gives them a handy inventory of possible onset and coda clusters in their language!
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So, let’s say a baby has heard lots of utterances beginning / /, like / b ɹ ɪŋmijðæt / and lots of utterances ending / st /, like / nɑtsowfæ st / — but none beginning / tbɹ / or ending / stb / Then he hears / juwʤʌstbɹowkɪt /
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Putting the word boundary in Consider / juwʤʌ stbɹ owkɪt / There’s a spot in the middle with four consonants / stbɹ / right in a row. The child has never heard anything like that at the very beginning or very end of an utterance, so he knows there’s probably a word boundary in there somewhere Where is it?
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Putting the word boundary in / juwʤʌ s| tbɹ owkɪt / If the word boundary is after / s /, the next word would have to begin with /
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This note was uploaded on 07/16/2011 for the course COM 215 taught by Professor Miller during the Spring '10 term at Pima CC.

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LECTURE 7 - Lecture 7: Parsing, Language Acquisition,...

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